The concentrations and composition of sixteen PAHs adsorbed to respirable particulate matter (PM₁₀ ≤ 10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM₂.₅ ≤ ₂.₅2.5 μm) were determined during autumn and winter in rural households of Henan Province, China, which used four types of domestic energy [crop residues, coal, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity] for cooking and heating. The present results show that there were significantly (p < 0.05) seasonal variations of particulate-bound PAHs in the rural households. The daily mean concentrations of particulate-bound PAHs in the kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoors were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn, except those in the kitchens using coal. The present study also shows that there were obvious variations of particulate-bound PAHs among the four types of domestic energy used in the rural households. The households using LPG for cooking can, at least in some circumstances, have higher concentrations of PAHs in the kitchens than using crop residues or electricity. In addition, using coal in the sitting rooms seemed to result in apparently higher concentrations of particulate-bound PAHs than using the other three types of domestic energy during winter. The most severe contamination occurred in the kitchens using LPG in winter, where the daily mean concentrations of PM₂.₅-bound PAHs were up to 762.5 ± 931.2 ng m⁻³, indicating that there was serious health risk of inhalation exposure to PAHs in the rural households of Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM₂.₅-bound PAHs in kitchens would be roughly reduced by 69.8% and 85.5% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity in autumn. The pilot research would provide important supplementary information to the indoor air pollution studies in rural area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
CitationWu, F., Liu, X., Wang, W., Man, Y. B., Chan, C. Y., Liu, W., et al. (2015). Characterization of particulate-bound PAHs in rural households using different types of domestic energy in Henan Province, China. Science of The Total Environment, 536, 840-846.
- Indoor air pollution
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- Particulate matter
- Risk assessment