Pharmaceuticals have recently been regarded as contaminants of emerging concern. To date, there is limited knowledge about antibiotic-degrading microorganisms in conventional activated sludge treatment systems and their characteristics toward antibiotic degradation especially in the presence of a pharmaceutical mixture. As such, antibiotic-degrading microorganisms were investigated and isolated from the activated sludge, and their degradation capabilities were evaluated. Two strains of cefalexin-degrading bacteria CE21 and CE22 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas sp. in the collected activated sludge. Strain CE22 was able to degrade over 90% of cefalexin, while CE21 was able to remove 46.7% of cefalexin after incubation for 24 h. The removal efficiency of cefalexin by CE22, different from that of CE21, was not significantly affected by an increase in cefalexin concentration, even up to 10 ppm, however the presence of 1 ppm of other pharmaceuticals had a significant effect on the degradation of cefalexin by CE22, but no significant effect on CE21. The degradation product of cefalexin by the two strains was identified to be 2-hydroxy-3-phenyl pyrazine. Our results also indicated that CE21 and CE22 were able to degrade caffeine, salicylic acid and chloramphenicol. Moreover, CE21 was found to be capable of eliminating sulfamethoxazole and naproxen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
CitationLin, B., Lyu, J., Lyu, X.-j., Yu, H.-q., Hu, Z., Lam, J. C. W., & Lam, P. K. S. (2015). Characterization of cefalexin degradation capabilities of two Pseudomonas strains isolated from activated sludge. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 282, 158-164. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.06.080.
- Activated sludge