Cantonese tone production performance of mainstream school children with hearing impairment

Karen K. L. CHEUNG, Ada H. Y. LAU, Ho Suen Joffee LAM, Kathy Y. S. LEE

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2 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the Cantonese tone production ability of children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream schools. The participants were 87 Cantonese-speaking children with mild-to-profound degrees of hearing loss aged 5.92-13.58 in Hong Kong. Most of the children were fitted with hearing aids (n = 65); 17 of them had profound hearing impairment, one who had severe hearing loss had cochlear implantation, and four who had mild hearing loss were without any hearing device. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test was administered, and the tones produced were rated by two of the authors and a speech-language pathologist. Group effects of tones, hearing loss level, and also an interaction of the two were found to be significant. The children with profound hearing impairment performed significantly worse than most of the other children. Tone 1 was produced most accurately, whereas tone 6 productions were the poorest. No relationship was found between the number of years of mainstreaming and tone production ability. Tone production error pattern revealed that confusion patterns in tone perception coincided with those in production. Tones having a similar fundamental frequency (F0) at the onset also posed difficulty in tone production for children with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2014 The Speech Pathology Association of Australia Limited.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)624-636
JournalInternational Journal of Speech-Language Pathology
Issue number6
Early online dateMar 2014
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014


Cheung, K. K. L., Lau, A. H. Y., Lam, J. H. S., & Lee, K. Y. S. (2014). Cantonese tone production performance of mainstream school children with hearing impairment. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(6), 624-636. doi: 10.3109/17549507.2014.896942


  • Cantonese
  • Tone production
  • Hearing loss
  • Mainstreaming


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