The major objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic risk posed to humans through PBDEs and PCBs of changing agricultural land use for recycling of e-waste and open burning of municipal waste. Nine locations were selected to represent 6 different types of land use such as e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)) and e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)). The total concentrations for PBDEs and PCBs, and the bioaccessibility of PCBs were determined using Soxhlet extraction and in vitro simulated gastric solution, respectively. Both total and bioaccessible concentrations were subsequently used to establish the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. It was found that very low cancer risk in all 6 types of different land use was caused by BDE-209. Nevertheless, at the 95th centile, the concentration of PCBs in EW (DW) and EW (OBS) indicate a low cancer risk to humans of 40 and 2.1 in a million, respectively, while the same was also observed for the bioaccessible PCBs in EW (DW) of 1.71 ± 2.96 in a million. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
CitationMan, Y. B., Lopez, B. N., Wang, H. S., Leung, A. O. W., Chow, K. L., & Wong, M. H. (2011). Cancer risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in former agricultural soils of Hong Kong. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 195, 92-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.08.010
- Land use change
- Farm soils
- Lifetime cancer risk