Organophosphate flame retardants are ubiquitous environmental contaminants; however, knowledge is limited regarding their environmental health risks and toxicity. Here, we investigated the effects of acute and long-term exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) to the nervous system of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos (2 h post-fertilization) were exposed to TDCPP (0–100 μg/L) for 6 months up until sexual maturation. Concentrations of TDCPP and its metabolic product (bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, BDCPP) were measured in the tissues of 5 day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae. There was no effect on locomotion, acetylcholinesterase activity, levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and expression of mRNAs and proteins related to central nervous system development (e.g., myelin basic protein, α1-tubulin) in any exposure group. However, in adult fish, reductions of dopamine and serotonin levels were detected in the brains of females but not males. Downregulation of nervous system development genes was observed in both the male and female brain tissues. TDCPP concentrations were measured in adult fish tissues including the brain, and greater levels were detected in females. Our results showed that females are more sensitive to TDCPP stress than males in terms of TDCPP-induced neurotoxicity. We demonstrate that long-term exposure to lower concentrations of TDCPP in fish can lead to neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
CitationWang, Q., Lam, J. C.-W., Man, Y.-C., Lai, N. L.-S., Kwok, K. Y., Guo, Y. Y., Lam, P. K.-S., & Zhou, B. (2015). Bioconcentration, metabolism and neurotoxicity of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro 2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) to zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology, 158, 108-115. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.11.001.
- Bioconcentration and metabolism
- Gender-specific toxicity