Belongingness and national belonging among youth in Hong Kong

Sung Tae JANG, Christine Margaret HALSE, Daphnee Hui Lin LEE, Chun Ki Queenie HON

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3 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined the multiplicative associations of the social categories of ethnicity (Hong Kong Chinese, mainland Chinese, or ethnic minorities), gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) with overall belongingness (to one’s self, personal networks, and society) and national belonging to China among youth (aged 18–24 years) in Hong Kong. Our analysis revealed similar levels of overall belongingness and national belonging among ethnic minority youth relative to Hong Kong Chinese youth. The intersectionality of mainland Chinese female youth determined a higher degree of belongingness compared with their male counterparts and Hong Kong Chinese female youth. Although SES was positively associated with belongingness, it was not significantly associated with national belonging to China. We provided explanations of these patterns and recommends policy strategies to strengthen individual and national belongingness. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1307-1329
JournalYouth & Society
Issue number8
Early online date11 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


Jang, S. T., Halse, C., Lee, D. H. L., & Hon, Q. C. K. (2022). Belongingness and national belonging among youth in Hong Kong. Youth & Society, 54(8), 1307-1329. doi: 10.1177/0044118X211022393


  • Belongingness
  • National belonging
  • Intersectionality
  • Youth in Hong Kong


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