Atmospheric hexachlorobenzene determined during the third China arctic research expedition: Sources and environmental fate

Xiaoguo WU, Chung Wah James LAM, Chonghuan XIA, Hui KANG, Zhouqing XIE, Paul K. S. LAM

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Abstract

In July to September 2008, air samples were collected aboard a research expedition icebreaker, Xuelong (Snow Dragon), under the support of the 2008 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition Program. All the air samples were analyzed for determination of the concentrations of Hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The levels of HCB ranged from 24 to 180 pg m−3, with an average concentration of 88 pg m−3. Generally, HCB were more uniform than other organchlorine pollutants in the North Pacific Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Geographically, the average concentrations of HCB from high to low were in the following order: the Central Arctic Ocean (110 ± 57 pg m−3), the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (93 ± 29 pg m−3), the East Asia (75 ± 49 pg m−3) and the North Pacific Ocean (69 ± 38 pg m−3). In the East Asia Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, both primary and secondary emissions of HCB from the nearby continents and/or oceans might contribute to the atmospheric HCB. In the Arctic, intense sea–ice melting in the summer of 2008 might result in the remobilization of HCB and enhance its atmospheric levels in this region. Copyright © Author(s) 2014.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)477-483
JournalAtmospheric Pollution Research
Volume5
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014

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environmental fate
hexachlorobenzene
Icebreakers
Secondary emission
Snow
Air
Melting
air
remobilization
research program
snow
melting
pollutant
ocean
summer
North Pacific Ocean

Citation

Wu, X., Lam, J. C. W., Xia, C., Kang, H., Xie, Z., & Lam, P. K. S. (2014). Atmospheric hexachlorobenzene determined during the third China arctic research expedition: Sources and environmental fate. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 5, 477-483. doi: 10.5094/APR.2014.056.

Keywords

  • POPs
  • Spatial variations of HCB
  • Atmospheric concentration
  • Arctic Ocean
  • Sea–ice melting