This study examined the association between smart device usage and the 1-year change in refractive error among a representative sample of Hong Kong children and adolescents aged 8–14 years. A total of 1597 participants (49.9% male, mean age 10.9, SD 2.0) who completed both baseline (2017–2018) and 1-year follow-up (2018–2019) eye examinations were included in the present study. The non-cycloplegic auto-refractive error was measured and the average spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was analyzed. The participants also self-reported their smart device usage at baseline. Multivariate regression adjusted for age, sex, baseline SER, parents’ short-sightedness, BMI, time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and caregiver-reported socio-economic status showed that, compared with the reference group (<2 h per day on both smartphone and tablet usages), those who spent ≥2 h per day using a smartphone and <2 h per day using a tablet had a significantly negative shift in refractive error (1-year change in SER −0.25 vs. −0.09 D, p = 0.01) for the right eye, while the level of significance was marginal (1-year change −0.28 vs. −0.15 D, p = 0.055) for the left eye. To conclude, our data suggested spending at most 2 h per day on both smartphones and tablets. Copyright © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Early online date||30 Nov 2020|
|Publication status||Published - 01 Dec 2020|
CitationDo, C.-W., Chan, L. Y. L., Tse, A. C. Y., Cheung, T., So, B. C. L., Tang, W. C., . . . Lee, P. H. (2020). Association between time spent on smart devices and change in refractive error: A 1-year prospective observational study among Hong Kong children and adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(23). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238923
- Handheld device