This study aims to establish a robust measurement to obtain a comprehensive understanding of perceptions of programming education (POPE) of teacher and principal groups. In this study, the POPE scale contains three dimensions: (a) understanding in programming (UP), (b) support for programming (SP), and (c) expectation of programming (EP). Self-reported questionnaires were administrated among 258 teachers and 229 principals. Multigroup analyses were used among the two groups. The results of measurement invariance tests show that configural and metric invariance are fully supported, and scalar invariance is partially supported, suggesting the factor structures, loadings, and most item intercepts of the POPE scale are equivalent across the groups examined. Implications of the study are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).
CitationKong, S.-C., & Wang, Y.-Q. (2019). Assessing perceptions of programming education among P-12 school teachers and principals: A multigroup invariance analysis. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 3(6), 718-729. doi: 10.1177/0734282918787670
- Measurement invariance
- Multigroup analysis
- Programming education
- Scale validation