Arsenic accumulation in rice: Sources, human health impact and probable mitigation approaches

Md ROKONUZZAMAN, Wai Chin LI, Yu Bon MAN, Yiu Fai TSANG, Zhihong YE

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

The human body loading with arsenic (As) through rice consumption is a global health concern. There is a crucial need to limit As build-up in rice, either by remediating As accumulation in soils or reducing As levels in irrigation water. Several conventional approaches have been utilized to alleviate the As accumulation in rice. However, except for some irrigation practices, those approaches’ success and the adoption rate are not remarkable. This review presents human health risks posed due to consumption of As contaminated rice, evaluates different biomarkers for tracing As loading in the human body, and discuss the latest advancement in As reducing technologies emphasizing the application of seed priming, nanotechnology, and biochar application for limiting As loading in rice grains. We also evaluated different irrigation techniques to reduce As accumulation in rice. Studies showed that the lifetime cancer risk rate ranges approximately 5–22 for the top rice-producing Asian nations. Human scalp hair and nails are commonly analyzed biomarkers to trace As in the human body. For decreasing As in rice, altering water management regimes significantly reduces grain As accumulation. Bio- and nano-priming of rice seeds improve germination and minimize As translocation in rice tissues by protecting cell membrane, building pool around seed coat, methylation and volatilization, or quenching harmful effects of reactive oxygen species. Nanoparticles application in the form of nano adsorbents or nanofertilizers facilitates nano-remediation of As through the formation of Fe plaque or sorption or oxidation process. Incorporating biochar in the rice fields significantly reduces As through immobilization, physical adsorption, or surface complexation. Again, As content in cooked rice was found to depend on irrigation source and raw rice As level. Copyright © 2022 China National Rice Research Institute.
Original languageEnglish
JournalRice Science
Early online date2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2022

Citation

Rokonuzzaman, M., Li, W. C., Man, Y. B., Tsang, Y. F., & Ye, Z. (2022). Arsenic accumulation in rice: Sources, human health impact and probable mitigation approaches. Rice Science. Advance online publication. http://www.ricescience.org/EN/Y2022/V29/I4/2

Keywords

  • Arsenic
  • Rice
  • Scalp hair
  • Irrigation management
  • Seed priming
  • Nanotechnology
  • Biochar
  • PG student publication

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