Analysis of STEM activities in primary students' science projects in an informal learning environment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study adopted a researcher-generated framework to analyze STEM activities demonstrated in primary students' science projects in an annual extracurricular event held in Hong Kong. Ten students' project reports were randomly selected from each of the three groups of 24 outstanding, 45 merit, and 68 consolation awarded projects. Content analysis was conducted to code the activities in each project. The coded information was then changed into numerical data for quantitative analysis. The results showed that, in general, more engineering and science activities than technology and mathematics activities were adopted by the primary students in their projects. More projects with the Outstanding Award conducted STEM activities than those projects with Merit and Consolation Awards, and significant group differences existed in the science and mathematics activities. Besides, science activities significantly positively related to engineering and mathematics activities. Furthermore, STEM-related content knowledge of discipline core ideas and crosscutting concepts were reported. This study sheds light on the pattern of STEM activities in students' science projects, and has implications for promoting STEM integration in primary education. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1003-1023
JournalInternational Journal of Science and Mathematics Education
Issue number6
Early online dateJun 2017
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018



So, W. W. M., Zhan, Y., Chow, S. C. F., & Leung, C. F. (2018). Analysis of STEM activities in primary students' science projects in an informal learning environment. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 16(6), 1003-1023. doi: 10.1007/s10763-017-9828-0


  • Science education
  • Science projects
  • STEM integration