An activity theory approach to research of ICT integration in Singapore schools

Cher Ping LIM, David HANG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Citations (Scopus)


This paper explains how activity theory is used as a framework to study the information and communication technologies (ICT) integration processes in Singapore schools, both from the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. The research study addresses the pertinent question of 'How has ICT been integrated in Singapore schools such that students engage in higher order thinking?' Taking activity system as a unit of analysis, the study documents the processes by which activities shape and are shaped by their different levels of context. Such a framework guides the study by documenting and describing the activity systems within and across schools and classrooms, with the integral contextual understanding of how larger entities such as policymakers have on them. This understanding is particularly critical to education research where the object of its inquiry is not simply knowledge, but useable knowledge. Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-63
JournalComputers & Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2003


communication technology
information technology


Lim, C. P., & Hang, D. (2003). An activity theory approach to research of ICT integration in Singapore schools. Computers & Education, 41(1), 49-63. doi: 10.1016/S0360-1315(03)00015-0


  • ICT integration in schools
  • Activity theory
  • Contradictions