Ambivalent sexism in consumption spaces: Exploring embodied processes of gender discrimination and reinforcement in Hong Kong shopping plaza

Wing Fung LAM

Research output: ThesisHonours Projects (HP)


People frequently experience ambivalent sexism, which is prevalent yet unfamiliar in reality. Two concepts are under ambivalent sexism, separately hostile and benevolent sexism. The research examined how the consumption space utilized ambivalent sexism to conduct gender discrimination and reinforced traditional gender notions. Research on ambivalent sexism, mass media, space, and gender from previous scholars was included in a systematic literature review. The sample size in the research was 201 participants, while 7 of the participants conducted the interviews through purposive sampling. Drawing on questionnaires and interviews with both men and women, the study explored how the consumption space affected people conducting ambivalent sexism behavior, especially consumption space that existed obvious gender notions. The research suggested that traditional gender role belief was the main factor, shaping the beliefs of ambivalent sexism in both men and women and influencing their gendered expectations in consumption space. Specifically, the study suggested that the education level negatively correlated with people's gender role beliefs, while low-income and benevolent sexism had a negative correlation. The research highlighted the environmental design elements, such as consumption space, media, and spatial pattern design, since it had the importance of understanding how gender thought and comparison mentality was shaped by urban consumption space. The consumption space has been empowering the meaning of people's interaction under ambivalent sexism, especially in intimate relationships. The implications of these findings are discussed, the study pointed that the need for more gender education to increase the understanding of gender performance daily; otherwise, people would like to use benevolent sexism to reinforce and conduct gender discrimination.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationBachelor of Education (Honours)
  • PEI, Qing 裴卿, Supervisor
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Honours Project (HP)
  • Bachelor of Education (Honours) (Geography) (Five-year Full-time)
  • Programme code: A5B084
  • Course code: GGP4016


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