Algal-derived organic matter as precursors of disinfection by-products and mutagens upon chlorination

Y. S. LUI, J. W. QIU, Y. L. ZHANG, Ming Hung WONG, Y. LIANG

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34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Algal-derived organic materials (including algal cells, hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteins) from Chlamydomonas sp. (a common green alga in local reservoirs), were chlorinated in the laboratory (20 °C, pH 7, Cl₂/DOC ratio of 20 mg Cl₂ mg⁻¹). Levels of disinfection by-products and mutagenicity (via Salmonella T100 mutation assay, -S9) over 2 h of chlorination time were determined. The hydrophilic proteins were more effective precursors of chloroform (35.9 μmol L⁻¹ at 120 min), 35 times greater than that from the hydrophobic proteins; whereas the hydrophobic proteins were more potent precursors of direct-acting mutagens (maximum level of 50.1 rev μL⁻¹ at 30 s) than the hydrophilic proteins (maximum level of 3.38 rev μL⁻¹ at 60 min). The mutagenicity of the chlorinated solutions generally reached a peak level shortly after chlorination and then declined afterwards, a pattern different from that of chloroform generation. The results indicate that algal hydrophilic proteins, containing low aromaticity and difficult to be removed via coagulation/flocculation, are important chloroform precursors. It is also suggested that hydrophobic organic intermediates with low molecular weight formed during chlorination may serve as the direct-acting mutagens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1454-1462
JournalWater Research
Volume45
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011

Citation

Lui, Y. S., Qiu, J. W., Zhang, Y. L., Wong, M. H., & Liang, Y. (2011). Algal-derived organic matter as precursors of disinfection by-products and mutagens upon chlorination. Water Research, 45(3), 1454-1462. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.11.007

Keywords

  • Chlamydomonas sp.
  • Chlorination intermediate by-products
  • Algal hydrophilic protein
  • Algal hydrophobic protein
  • Mutagenic potency

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