Algal-derived organic materials (including algal cells, hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteins) from Chlamydomonas sp. (a common green alga in local reservoirs), were chlorinated in the laboratory (20 °C, pH 7, Cl₂/DOC ratio of 20 mg Cl₂ mg⁻¹). Levels of disinfection by-products and mutagenicity (via Salmonella T100 mutation assay, -S9) over 2 h of chlorination time were determined. The hydrophilic proteins were more effective precursors of chloroform (35.9 μmol L⁻¹ at 120 min), 35 times greater than that from the hydrophobic proteins; whereas the hydrophobic proteins were more potent precursors of direct-acting mutagens (maximum level of 50.1 rev μL⁻¹ at 30 s) than the hydrophilic proteins (maximum level of 3.38 rev μL⁻¹ at 60 min). The mutagenicity of the chlorinated solutions generally reached a peak level shortly after chlorination and then declined afterwards, a pattern different from that of chloroform generation. The results indicate that algal hydrophilic proteins, containing low aromaticity and difficult to be removed via coagulation/flocculation, are important chloroform precursors. It is also suggested that hydrophobic organic intermediates with low molecular weight formed during chlorination may serve as the direct-acting mutagens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2011|
CitationLui, Y. S., Qiu, J. W., Zhang, Y. L., Wong, M. H., & Liang, Y. (2011). Algal-derived organic matter as precursors of disinfection by-products and mutagens upon chlorination. Water Research, 45(3), 1454-1462. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.11.007
- Chlamydomonas sp.
- Chlorination intermediate by-products
- Algal hydrophilic protein
- Algal hydrophobic protein
- Mutagenic potency