This quantitative study examines whether and to what extent affective factors (i.e. motivation, self-confidence, risk-taking, L2 speaking anxiety, and grit) and virtual intercultural experiences are linked to willingness to communicate in a second language (L2 WTC) in in-class, out-of-class, and digital settings. Participants included 176 Korean undergraduate and graduate students of English as a foreign language (EFL). After adjusting for demographic factors, hierarchical regression analyses revealed three major results: first, those with higher levels of L2 motivation and grit as well as a lower level of L2 speaking anxiety had higher L2 WTC inside the classroom. Second, students who majored in English and had higher levels of L2 self-confidence and risk-taking had higher L2 WTC outside the classroom. Third, individuals who were younger, had a higher level of L2 self-confidence and engaged more frequently in virtual intercultural experiences had higher L2 WTC in digital settings. Results suggest that demographic and affective variables as well as involvement in virtual intercultural activities play distinct roles in influencing EFL students' WTC in three different L2 communication contexts. Based on these findings, this study provides pedagogical suggestions for L2 practitioners. Copyright © 2019 The Author(s).
Willingness to Communicate
CitationLee, J. S., & Lee, K. (2019). Affective factors, virtual intercultural experiences, and L2 willingness to communicate in in-class, out-of-class, and digital settings. Language Teaching Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1362168819831408
- Affective variables
- Virtual intercultural experience
- Willingness to communicate in a second language