Aerosol particles emitted from various human activities deteriorate air quality and are suggested to increase public health risk. Numerous studies have emphasized the relationship between the mass and/or number concentration of aerosols (or commonly known as particulate matter (PM)) in the atmosphere and the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, while very few have examined the deposition efficiency of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract. We present the first examination of particles deposition based on, detailed simulation of aerosol physico-chemical properties by a recently developed particle-resolved aerosol model and the mixing state dependent hygrosocpic growth and deposition computed at particle-level by deposition model. Furthermore, we elucidate the impact of mixing state on deposition efficiency by using a recently introduced aerosol mixing state index. We find that without considering mixing-state-dependent hygroscopic growth of particles leads to overestimation of deposition efficiency; whereas considering an average mixing state leads to underestimation of 5% to 20% of soot particle deposition efficiency in human alveoli. We conclude that aerosol mixing state, which evolves during the interaction between atmospheric chemistry and meteorology, is important for the comprehensive evaluation of air quality and its implication to public health requires further investigation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).