Adaptation and validation of the mindful student questionnaire in Chinese

Qiu WANG, Yiqi WU, Ruohan FENG, Xin HAO, Joshua C. FELVER, Ying ZHANG, Rachel RAZZA

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


Objectives: The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Mindful Student Questionnaire (MSQ) among a sample of Chinese vocational school students. 

Method: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were fitted using MSQ and Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ) data collected from 2910 adolescent students. Factor structure analysis, reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity were examined to investigate the psychometric properties of MSQ. 

Results: The EFA indicated that a 3-factor solution (i.e., mindful attention, mindful acceptance, and approach and persistence) was most suitable for the MSQ in the study sample. This 3-factor CFA model indicated that inter-factor correlations were different from those originally reported by the scale developer in a US adolescent student sample. The reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability) were acceptable. Discriminative, convergent, and predictive validity were demonstrated through the MSQ’s relation with the SSWQ. 

Conclusions: The 15-item, 3-factor MSQ demonstrates strong reliability and validity, offering a new multidimensional model of MSQ to assess mindfulness among Chinese adolescents in a school setting. 

Preregistration: This study is not preregistered. Copyright © 2024 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-371
Issue number2
Early online dateFeb 2024
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


Wang, Q., Wu, Y., Feng, R., Hao, X., Felver, J. C., Zhang, Y., & Razza, R. (2024). Adaptation and validation of the mindful student questionnaire in Chinese. Mindfulness, 15(2), 359-371.


  • Mindfulness
  • Psychological flexibility
  • Adolescent
  • Validation
  • Reliability
  • Vocational school
  • PG student publication


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