Achievement in mathematics and Chinese language: A growth curve analysis

Magdalena Mo Ching MOK, Jinxin ZHU

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


This study aimed to explore the relationship between students' growth in mathematics and Chinese language over a span of six years. Three waves of longitudinal data were originally collected from the sample by the Hong Kong government via the Territory- wide System Assessment (TSA) in 2007, 2010, and in 2013, when students sat for the TSA in Grades 3, 6, and 9, respectively. The sample used in the current study was comprised of secondary data from 18,614 students (41.0% female or 7,637 girls) from 244 schools in Hong Kong. These students chose to answer the Chinese version of the TSA Mathematics test paper at G9. Parallel-process multilevel latent growth models were created based on students' TSA Rasch measures in these subjects. Results showed that: (1) Students' growths were found to be nonlinear, with accelerated growth in mathematics and Chinese language over time; (2) Growths in mathematics and Chinese language were associated with one another; (3) Negative relationships were found between initial achievements and the rate of growth for both subjects; (4) Boys outperformed girls in initial mathematics, but girls were stronger in initial Chinese language. Girls grew at a faster rate than boys did in both mathematics and Chinese language.
本研究旨在探討於六年期間,學生在數學的學業成長與他們在國文的學業成長之關係。原始數據來自香港政府在2007年、2010年和2013年分別通過全港系統性評估(TSA)在三年級、六年級和九年級所蒐集的三波縱貫數據。本研究取樣來自香港244所學校的18,614名學生(41.0%女性,即7,637名女生),作二次分析。這些學生在G9的TSA數學科評估時,選擇了以中文版的試題作答。研究以並行處理多層次潛在成長模式,對學生的Rasch數據進行分析。研究結果顯示:一、學生自三年級到九年級的學業成長是非線性的,隨著時間改變,數學科和國文科的學業成長速度愈來愈快;二、數學和國文的學業成長是相互聯繫的;三、學生在兩個科目的初始成就和這兩個科目的學業成長率之間存在負相關關係;四、在開始時,男生的數學成績表現勝過女生,而女生的國文成績表現勝過男生,但是女生往後無論在數學或國文的學業成長速度都要比男生快。 Copyright © 2019 中國測驗學會.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-319
JournalPsychological Testing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019


Mok, M. M. C., & Zhu, J. (2019). Achievement in mathematics and Chinese language: A growth curve analysis. Psychological Testing, 66(3), 285-319.


  • Academic growth
  • Chinese language
  • Latent growth model
  • Mathematics
  • 國文
  • 數學
  • 潛在增長模型
  • 學業成長
  • Alt. title: 數學與國文學業成長曲線分析


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