Academic attributions of primary students: Multilevel analysis on school contributions

Magdalena Mo Ching MOK, Hon Suen MA

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Primary school pupils’ attributions of academic success are presented in this study. The sample for the study comprised 1154 Year-3 and Year-5 pupils from ten primary schools in Hong Kong. Pupils’ academic attributions were measured by a 16-item Academic Attribution Scale. Pupils indicated the extent to which they attributed their performance at examinations, tests, homework assignments, and class work to luck, ability, effort and use of strategy, on the scale. It was found that girls tended to have healthier attributions than boys did. Girls attributed significantly more to strategy use and effort than boys did. Boys attributed performance to luck significantly more than girls did. Multilevel analysis showed that there was significant school-level and class-level variance for attributional beliefs. Nevertheless, most of the higher level variances of attributional beliefs occurred at the class-level rather than at school level. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed in the article.
本文乃一項關於小學生對於學業成就歸因的研究。研究樣本包括1,154名來自十間小學的小三和小五學生。他們的學業成就歸因以一個有16個題項的 (學業成就歸因量表)量度。小學生在這個量表上顯示他們對於自己的考試、測驗、功課、堂課等成績的歸因。歸因包括運氣、能力、努力、和策略運用。研究結果顯示,女生的學業成就歸因較男生正面。女生較男生更多歸因於努力,和策略運用。而男生則較女生更多歸因於運氣。多層回歸分析顯示,學校和班別均對小學生的學業成就歸因有顯著影響。其中尤以班別為然。本文就這些結果對教學的意義,作出討論。Copyright © 2006 The Hong Kong Institute of Education.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-46
JournalThe Journal of Quality School Education
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006


Mok, M. M. C., & Ma, H. S. (2006). Academic attributions of primary students: Multilevel analysis on school contributions. The Journal of Quality School Education, 4, 33-46.


  • Primary Education
  • Theory and Practice of Teaching and Learning
  • Alt. title: 小學生的學業成就歸因︰學校因素之多層回歸分析


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