A twenty-first century assessment of values across the global workforce

David A. RALSTON, Carolyn P. EGRI, Emmanuelle REYNAUD, Narasimhan SRINIVASAN, Olivier FURRER, David BROCK, Ruth ALAS, Florian WANGENHEIM, Fidel Leo´n DARDER, Christine KUO, Vojko POTOCAN, Audra I. MOCKAITIS, Erna SZABO, Jaime Ruiz GUTIE´RREZ, Andre PEKERTI, Arif BUTT, Ian PALMER, Irina NAOUMOVA, Tomasz LENARTOWICZ, Arunas STARKUSVu Thanh HUNG, Tevfik DALGIC, Mario MOLTENI, Marı´a Teresa de la Garza CARRANZA, Isabelle MAIGNAN, Francisco B. CASTRO, Yong-lin MOON, Jane TERPSTRA-TONG, Marina DABIC, Yongjuan LI, Wade DANIS, Maria KANGASNIEMI, Mahfooz ANSARI, Liesl RIDDLE, Laurie MILTON, Philip HALLINGER, Detelin ELENKOV, Ilya GIRSON, Modesta GELBUDA, Prem RAMBURUTH, Tania CASADO, Ana Maria ROSSI, Malika RICHARDS, Cheryl Van DEUSEN, Ping-Ping FU, Paulina Man Kei WAN, Moureen TANG, Chay-Hoon LEE, Ho-Beng CHIA, Yongquin FAN, Alan WALLACE

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research. Copyright © 2011 Springer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-31
JournalJournal of Business Ethics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


Ralston, D. A., Egri, C. P., Reynaud, E., Srinivasan, N., Furrer, O., Brock, D., Alas, R., et al. (2011). A 21st century assessment of values across the global workforce. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(1), 1-31.


  • Cultural values
  • International management
  • Schwartz Values Survey


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