Effectiveness of an exercise program designed for improving postural control and mobility in older adults with type 2 diabetes was investigated. Ninety-three adults 65 or older diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and able to walk unaided were recruited. The intervention group received exercise training focused on ankle strengthening and mobility twice per week for 10 weeks. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. After 10 weeks, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in the mean Sensory Organization Test composite score (4.4 vs. 0.3; p = 0.01) as well as visual ratio (0.1 vs. 0.002; p = 0.01) and vestibular ratio (0.1 vs. 0.003; p < 0.001) than the control group after adjusting for covariates. A greater trend of improvement in the Timed Up and Go and Single-Leg Stance Test was also found in the intervention group. Exercise training focusing on the ankle is effective in enhancing the postural stability of older adults with type 2 diabetes and can potentially be effective in improving single-leg standing balance and mobility. Copyright © 2018 SLACK Incorporated.