A systematic review of AR and VR enhanced language learning

Xinyi HUANG, Di ZOU, Kwok Shing CHENG, Haoran XIE

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

83 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provided a systematic review of previous Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) studies on language learning. A total of 88 articles were selected and analyzed from five perspectives: their ways of integrating AR or VR tools in language learning; main users of AR and VR technologies; major research findings; why AR and VR tools are effective in promoting language learning; and the implications. It was found that (1) immersing learners into virtual worlds is the main approach to language learning in AR and VR studies; (2) university students were the main users of AR/VR technologies; (3) the major research findings concerning the benefits of AR and VR included improvement of students' learning outcomes, enhancement of motivation, and positive perceptions towards using AR and VR; (4) AR and VR tools promoted language learning through providing immersive learning experience, enhancing motivation, creating interaction, and reducing learning anxiety; and (5) implications identified from previous research include the need of providing training for teachers, enlarging sample sizes, and exploring learner factors such as learner engagement and satisfaction. Copyright © 2021 by the authors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4639
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


Huang, X., Zou, D., Cheng, G., & Xie, H. (2021). A systematic review of AR and VR enhanced language learning. Sustainability, 13(9). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094639


  • Augmented reality
  • Virtual reality
  • Language learning
  • Computer-assisted language learning


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