Building on Seymour Papert's view of empowering students by mastering programming, this study conceptualized programming empowerment as consisting of four components: meaningfulness, impact, creative self-efficacy, and programming self-efficacy. A sample of 287 primary school students in grades four to six completed a corresponding survey. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the proposed components of the programming empowerment instrument. A structural equation model indicated that students with greater interest in programming perceived it as more meaningful, had greater impact, had greater creative self-efficacy, and had greater programming self-efficacy. Also, students with attitudes toward collaboration that were more positive than others had greater creative self-efficacy. Boys showed more interest in programming than girls did. Students in higher grade levels than others viewed programming as less meaningful and had lower programming self-efficacy. These results support future studies that evaluate the impacts of interest-driven computational thinking and programming curricula with ample collaboration opportunities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationKong, S.-C., Chiu, M. M., & Lai, M. (2018). A study of primary school students' interest, collaboration attitude, and programming empowerment in computational thinking education. Computers & Education, 127, 178-189. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.08.026
- Collaboration attitude
- Computational thinking education
- Programming empowerment
- Student interest