Multiple forms of stigmatization are experienced by caregivers of children with autism among ethnic minority (EM) groups in various countries. Such forms of stigmatization can lead to delayed assessment and services for mental health among children and caregivers. This review identified the research literature on the types of stigmatization experienced by caregivers of children with autism with an EM background. A total of 19 studies published after 2010 (i.e., 12 from the USA, 2 from the UK, 1 from Canada, and 1 from New Zealand) of caregivers of 20 ethnicities were identified and reviewed, and their reporting qualities systematically also assessed. Four main themes: (1) self-stigma, (2) social stigma, (3) stigma towards EM parents of children on the autism spectrum, and (4) service utilization stigma, and nine sub-themes were identified. The discrimination experienced by caregivers were extracted, synthesized, and further discussed. While the reporting quality of the studies included is good, the depth of the understanding of this under-researched yet important phenomenon is very limited. The multiple forms of stigmatization experiences are complex, and it may be difficult to disentangle whether the causes of stigmatization were autism and/or EM related, and the types of stigmatization can vary enormously among different ethnic groups in different societies. More quantitative studies are needed to quantify the impacts of multiple forms of stigmatization on families of children with autism in EM groups so that more socially inclusive support for caregivers with an EM background in host countries can be developed. Copyright © 2023 W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute.
|Journal||Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities|
|Early online date||Mar 2023|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - Mar 2023|
CitationPang, R. C. C., Ho, M. S. H., & Wong, P. W. C. (2023). A review of the literature on the multiple forms of stigmatization of caregivers of children with autism among ethnic minority groups. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s40615-023-01540-6
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Ethnic minority
- Systematic review