A meta-analysis of the association between movement specific reinvestment and motor performance

Chor Wai Tracy TANG, Toby C. T. MAK, Thomson W. L. WONG, Catherine Mamaid CAPIO, Jianbin LI, Rich S. W. MASTERS, King Chung Derwin CHAN

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS) is used to quantify differences in the propensity that individuals have to consciously engage in movement. Although the MSRS is widely used in movement science, evidence for its theoretically negative association with motor performance remains inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize research findings between scores on the MSRS and motor performance, and to disentangle theoretical and sampling factors that may moderate the relationship. Following PRISMA guidelines, Web of Science, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsychInfo and PubMed were searched. Out of the eligible texts, 410 effect sizes from 29 studies were extracted. Multi-level meta-analysis indicated that neither the MSRS total score, nor the MSRS subscales score (Movement Self-Consciousness and Conscious Motor Processing), were significantly associated with motor performance. However, the MSRS total score was significantly and negatively associated with motor performance when either (1) psychological pressure was present, (2) motor performance involved object manipulation, or (3) speed was the outcome unit of motor performance. In conclusion, the MSRS total score was linked to movement failure in certain motor conditions, providing partial support for the central tenet of the Theory of Reinvestment that a propensity for conscious engagement in movement can impair motor performance. Copyright © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Early online dateMay 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 2023


Tang, T. C. W., Mak, T. C. T., Wong, T. W. L., Capio, C. M., Li, J., Masters, R. S. W., & Chan, D. K. C. (2023). A meta-analysis of the association between movement specific reinvestment and motor performance. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2023.2214813


  • Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale
  • Theory of Reinvestment
  • Movement Self-Consciousness
  • Conscious Motor Processing
  • Motor performance
  • PG student publication


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