A global analysis reveals where growth mindsets predict students’ well-being

Nigel Mantou LOU, Man Wai Liman LI

Research output: Contribution to conferencePapers


Background: Current research on mindsets has transitioned from focusing solely on their impact on performance to examining how various classroom factors, such as teachers' and peers' mindsets, contribute to their diverse effects. This is known as the Mindsets × Context hypothesis. Additionally, it is worth exploring whether the broader cultural norms in a given society, known as the macro context, can further elucidate the differences in mindsets. Furthermore, does this influence extend to understanding the well-being of students?

Aim: To address these inquiries, we investigated the correlation between students' mindsets and their well-being (meaning in life, positive affect, life satisfaction), specifically in relation to the socio-cultural surroundings and norms such as power distance and social mobility.

Methods: We analyzed a global dataset with 78 societies (n = 612,004 adolescents) using multilevel analysis.

Results: The interaction results showed that the role of students’ growth mindset on wellbeing depends on the cultural environment. Growth mindsets positively predicted well-being scores in general. However, the associations were stronger in countries with lower power distance and higher social mobility.

Conclusions: These results contest the notion that growth mindsets universally yield positive outcomes across all societies. Instead, when students with growth mindsets are immersed in an environment that has a higher level of power distance and low social mobility, growth mindsets have little impact on well-being. Therefore, it is crucial for researchers to account for societal norms when seeking to comprehend and cultivate students' growth mindsets and well-being. Copyright © 2023 HKERA-APERA.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023
EventHKERA-APERA International Conference 2023 = 香港教育研究學會暨亞太教育研究學會2023國際會議 - The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Duration: 08 Dec 202310 Dec 2023


ConferenceHKERA-APERA International Conference 2023 = 香港教育研究學會暨亞太教育研究學會2023國際會議
CityHong Kong
Internet address


Lou, N. M., & Li, L. M. W. (2023, December 8–10). A global analysis reveals where growth mindsets predict students’ well-being [Paper presentation]. HKERA-APERA International Conference 2023, Hong Kong, China.


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