A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater

Prabhat Kumar RAI, Jechan LEE, Suresh Kumar KAILASA, Eilhann E. KWON, Yiu Fai TSANG, Yong Sik OK, Ki-Hyun KIM

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131 Citations (Scopus)


Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe˅ᴵO₄²⁻) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe˅ᴵO₄²⁻) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe˅ᴵO₄²⁻) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-448
JournalEnvironmental Research
Early online dateNov 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


Rai, P. K., Lee, J., Kailasa, S. K., Kwon, E. E., Tsang, Y. F., Ok, Y. S., & Kim, K.-H. (2018). A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater. Environmental Research, 160, 420-448. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.016


  • Ferrate
  • Environmental applications
  • Oxidant
  • Disinfection
  • Water remediation
  • Nanoparticles


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