This study compared the shoulder muscular performance and lean mass between elite and recreational swimmers. Thirty elite swimmers (mean age ± standard deviation = 23.1 ± 3.5 years) and 21 recreational swimmers (mean age ± standard deviation = 20.8 ± 2.1 years) participated in the study. Maximum muscle strength and time to maximum muscle strength of shoulder flexor, extensor, abductor, and adductor muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Lean mass of the arms and body (excluding the head) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results revealed that compared with recreational swimmers, elite swimmers had higher maximum muscle strength of the shoulder flexor, extensor, abductor, and adductor muscles (all P < .001). The time to reach maximum muscle strength of all shoulder muscles showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > .05). The lean mass values in the left arm (P = .037), right arm (P < .001), and whole body (P = .014) were higher in elite swimmers than recreational swimmers. Elite swimmers had greater shoulder maximum muscle strength compared with recreational swimmers though the time taken to reach maximum muscle strength was similar between the 2 groups. Elite swimmers also showed a higher lean mass in both arms and their entire body when compared with recreational swimmers. The results may be useful for recreational swimmers who intend to advance to professional level, and for talent identification and early development of elite swimmers. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
CitationCheung, A. T. H., Ma, A. W. W., Fong, S. S. M., Chung, L. M. Y., Bae, Y.-H., Liu, K. P. Y., . . . Chung, J. W. Y. (2018). A comparison of shoulder muscular performance and lean mass between elite and recreational swimmers: Implications for talent identification and development. Medicine, 97(47). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013258
- Amateur swimmers
- Muscle mass
- Professional swimmers