A commentary on the therapeutic potential of melatonin and its analogues in CNS conditions

Joseph Wai-Hin LEUNG, Kwok Wai LAU, Benson W-M. LAU, Benjamin K. YEE

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The hormone, melatonin, is secreted by the pineal gland in the mammalian brain. It plays an important role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle. Now, melatonin is also recognized for its anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging functions, as well as being an important modulator of the anti-inflammatory response within the immune-pineal axis. Melatonin therefore can exert extensive influence over a wide range of psychophysiological functions – primarily through the activation of melatonin receptors: MT1 and MT2. Here, we briefly summarize the potential clinical applications of melatonin and its analogues and the suggestion that dysregulation of melatonin signalling in the brain constitutes as causal risk factor to neurodegenerative diseases and mood disorders. Clinical and preclinical evidence for the antidepression and antianxiety efficacy of melatonin and its synthetic analogues (e.g. agomelatine) is outlined. Mechanistically, the positive impact of melatonin on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to the observed mood-stabilizing effects of melatonin and its analogues according to the “neurogenic hypothesis” of antidepressant drug action. This together with the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative profile of melatonin may explain its unique therapeutic profile. Although there remain inconsistencies to be resolved, melatonin and its receptors are viable targets for the development of novel mood-stabilizing agents with fewer side effects. They could be viable alternatives for patients who cannot tolerate current antidepressant drugs as well as those who are not responding to current medication. Copyright © 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPsychiatry and neuroscience update: From translational research to a humanistic approach
EditorsPascual Ángel GARGIULO, Humberto Luis MESONES ARROYO
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer
Pages177-186
ISBN (Electronic)9783319953601
ISBN (Print)9783319953595
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Melatonin
Therapeutics
Neurodegenerative Diseases
S 20098
Antidepressive Agents
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Melatonin MT1 Receptor
Melatonin MT2 Receptor
Melatonin Receptors
Pineal Gland
Excipients
Neurogenesis
Brain
Circadian Rhythm
Mood Disorders
Free Radicals
Hippocampus
Sleep
Hormones

Citation

Leung, J. W.-H., Lau, W. K.-W., Lau, B. W.-M., & Yee, B. K. (2019). A commentary on the therapeutic potential of melatonin and its analogues in CNS conditions. In P. Á. Gargiulo & H. L. Mesones Arroyo (Eds.), Psychiatry and neuroscience update: From translational research to a humanistic approach (pp. 177-186). Cham: Springer.

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Melatonin
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neurogenesis