香港青年“下流”問題:客觀狀況與主觀感受

趙永佳, 葉仲茵

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

本文透過分析人口普查數據從而檢視香港青年在勞動市場上處境的變化,並利用全港性電話調查數據以探討他們對社會流動、發展機會和“中產夢”的感受。結果顯示,不論學歷,青年的工作收入及從事中產職業百分比均下降。對剛進入勞動市場的青年而言,職場回報還是與教育程度息息相關。較多的年輕人認為向上流動機會不足並持悲觀態度。顯然,無論在客觀分析或主觀層面,現今一代香港青年普遍經歷“下流”。但本文不能認同以“上位論”來解釋青年近年積極參與社會運動的原因。從社會不平等/平等以及生活機會不均等/均等的角度出發,政府及有關當局有必要促進年輕人事業發展及生涯規劃,以減少青年“下流”的狀況。
Using sample data from the 2001 and 2011 population censuses and data of territory-wide representative telephone surveys carried out in 2013 and 2014, we attempt to examine the labor market situations and attitudes towards social mobility among youth in modern day Hong Kong. Our results show that downward mobility is experienced and perceived by the young generation. Objectively, decline in income and middle class job attainment is recorded for youth at all education levels. But, youth labor market returns are still largely determined by education background, with those who hold a university degree earning more than the median income of the entire working population and are more likely to enter middle class than less educated youth. Subjectively, first, compared with their older counterparts, youth in Hong Kong are less likely to identify themselves as middle class, though their desire to be its member is stronger. Second, they not only see insufficient chances for upward mobility and fewer opportunities for personal development in Hong Kong, and are dissatisfied about that. They also feel pessimistic towards their future. Nonetheless, based on the findings of our previous studies, we argue that active participation in social movements among youth is not due to their perspective experiences and perceptions of downward mobility. Instead, we call for more appropriate policies in facilitating career development and life planning of our young generation. These measures include the increase of subsidies in university education, the provision of vocational education and training to non-university graduates, the diversification of economic and employment structures, and the implementation of social citizenship to all residents at different life cycle stages, which would reduce the chances of downward mobility and let youth from different backgrounds integrate fully into the mainstream society of Hong Kong. Copyright © 2015 國務院港澳事務辦公室.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)65-74
Journal港澳研究
Volume2015
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Citation

趙永佳和葉仲茵(2015):香港青年“下流”問題:客觀狀況與主觀感受,《港澳研究》,2015(3),頁65-74。

Keywords

  • 青年
  • 社會流動
  • 中產階級
  • 收入不平等
  • 社會公民權
  • Youth
  • Social mobility
  • Middle class
  • Earnings inequality
  • Social citizenship
  • Alt. title: Social mobility of youth in Hong Kong: Objective experiences and subjective perceptions