青年“新香港人”的經濟融合

葉仲茵, 趙永佳

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

本文透過分析人口普查數據以探討內地移民質素的轉變對他們移居香港後的經濟融合之影響,並釐清青年“新香港人”對香港經濟是否有貢獻的爭論。結果顯示,2001年,居港年期對工作收入有著很清楚的影響:長期居港移民青年(居港至少達15年)的收入處境最佳,新永久居民青年(居港7~15年)次之,新來港青年則最差。隨著移民政策自2003年起的轉變,狹義經濟融合與居港年期的關係變得複雜。在工作收入上,2011年時,女性“新香港人”已達致狹義的經濟融合,男性新永久居民青年則成為輸家。由此發現,2011年時已出現了一些“顛覆”性的現象,其原因在於因吸引高學歷和高技術內地移民計劃的推出而造成為數不少的高質素內地移民投入本地的勞動市場。
Hong Kong-Mainland China relations have become more tense in recent years. A controversy is over the benefits and costs of recently arrived Mainland immigrants to the local society. On the one hand, they are labeled as "parasites" competing for local social and welfare resources. It is argued that low skilled immigrants from family re-union scheme have caused the rising income inequality. On the other hand, owing to their younger age, they are packaged as a valuable source of workforce especially when Hong Kong population starts to age. It is maintained that young Mainlanders from talent- or skill-based immigration schemes introduced since 2003 have made substantial contribution to the local economy. Using sample data from 2001 and 2011 Population Censuses, we attempt to compare the labour force participation rate and earnings between Mainland immigrants and Hong Kong natives focusing on those aged 20-34. Among immigrants, distinction is made in terms of the duration of them residing in Hong Kong. Hence, differences between sub-groups of young Mainland immigrants in terms of socio-economic attainment over time and the existence of changing cohort quality among these groups could be disentangled. Our results show that, first, highly-educated and skilled Mainlanders from skill-oriented immigration schemes implemented since 2003 greatly enhanced the quality of recent Mainland immigrants and resulted in a higher level of earnings attainment among degree holders. Economic assimilation was thus achieved. Second, those new Mainland immigrants via family re-union scheme could hardly achieve economic assimilation. Immigrant youth who lived in Hong Kong for at least 15 years and received local education could not reach income parity with their native counterparts. Since a large group of Mainlanders migrated to Hong Kong for family re-union, their low level of education gave rise to the polarization of earnings among newly arrived immigrants in nowadays Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 國務院港澳事務辦公室.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)72-82
Journal港澳研究
Volume2016
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Citation

葉仲茵和趙永佳(2016):青年“新香港人”的經濟融合,《港澳研究》,2016(1),頁72-82。

Keywords

  • 青年
  • 內地移民
  • 融合
  • 收入不平等
  • Youth
  • Mainland immigrants
  • Assimilation
  • Earnings inequality
  • Alt. title: Socio-economic adaptation and cohort quality of young mainland-born residents in Hong Kong after the handover