雕像與流水:論馮至對里爾克詩風的接受和轉化

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Abstract

馮至以《十四行集》(1942)建立了「哲理詩人」的美譽,他「私淑」奧地利哲理型抒情詩人里爾克(Rainer Maria Rilke)。如要深入了解《十四行集》的風格,就必須對里爾克詩風的嬗變及如何被馮至接受和轉化進行探究。一般論者多著眼於里爾克觀察事物的方法及其有關孤獨、死亡、萬物相連等哲理對馮至的影響,詩歌風格的討論並不多。馮至本人卻早已留意到里爾克由中期往後期詩風的轉變,並用「雕像」和「流水」等比喻來形容這些變化。本文特別針對具體詩風的表現,首先介紹中期里爾克深受視覺藝術啟發的風格,以補充里爾克的中文評介往往忽略之處。然後比較二人對視覺藝術截然不同的接受,指出馮至並未直接受雕塑或繪畫的影響,當他用「雕像」來引介里爾克作品時,只是用作一種對詩風的比喻,跟視覺藝術的特質並無密切關係。最後參考馮至及唐湜等人的用法,集中討論「雕像」風格的核心定義,將之與「流水」並置再加以引伸,藉此勾勒出《十四行集》如何同時受中、後期里爾克的啟迪,兼具「雕像」般的凝定收斂和「流水」般的流暢抒情,但馮至在思想內容上不取里爾克晚年的晦澀艱深,反而更入世和平易近人,也更符合戰時大後方的語境。

Feng Zhi’s Sonnets (1942) firmly established his fame as a “philosophical poet.” He deeply admired and had learnt a lot from the Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke. In order to gain a sound understanding of the poetic style of Sonnets, one must study the subtle changes of Rilke’s poetic style and understand how Feng had received and transformed the Rilkean influences. Most critics concentrate their attention on how Feng had borrowed from Rilke the artistic method of observation and his musing on such philosophical themes as solitude, death, and the interconnectedness between all things. Seldom is the comparison of poetic style the heart of their inquiry. However, Feng himself was keenly aware of the subtle changes in style between Rilke’s middle and late periods, and he used the metaphors of statue, flowing water and ocean to characterize such changes. Focusing on concrete manifestations of poetic style, this article seeks to explain how the visual art had contributed to the development of Rilke’s writing during the middle period, an important topic often neglected in the critical discussion of Rilke in the Chinese language. Then it compares Feng’s and Rilke’s very different reception of this art form, pointing out that Feng’s poetry had never been directly inspired by sculpture or painting. Hence, when he borrowed “statue” as a keyword to introduce Rilke’s works, the expression was meant to be a metaphor of poetic style, being rather remote from the specific qualities of the visual art itself. Finally, extending Feng’s and Tang Shi’s uses of “statue” and juxtaposing it with “flowing water,” the article sorts out the core meanings of these terms and utilizes them to compare Feng to Rilke, highlighting particularly that Feng’s sonnets exhibit simultaneously some important features of Rilke’s middle and late periods. However, Feng avoided the philosophical obscurity in the late Rilke, which made his sonnets more accessible to Chinese readers and in tune with the cultural milieu of the war-time Kun Ming, where they were written. Copyright © 2015 中國現代文學學會.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)91-107
Journal中國現代文學
Volume28
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015

Citation

余君偉(2015):雕像與流水:論馮至對里爾克詩風的接受和轉化,《中國現代文學》,28,頁91-107。

Keywords

  • 馮至
  • 十四行詩
  • 里爾克
  • 詩歌風格
  • 視覺藝術
  • Feng Zhi
  • Sonnets
  • Rilke
  • Poetic style
  • Visual art
  • Alt. title: Of statues and flowing water: Feng Zhi's reception and transformation of Rilke’s poetic style