陳寅恪典故考釋批評觀念及其實踐方法析論

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Abstract

陳寅恪博涉古今中外學術,然而自1931年擔任清華大學中文系及歷史系「合聘教授」 以來,詩文箋釋一直是他念茲在茲的研究課題,晚年更以今典、古典兩類考釋總結相關研究,發展出一套獨特的批評架構。他對典故的重視與新文化運動以來各種反對用典的聲音正是背道而馳,胡適的「八不主義」提倡不用典,並且屢以陳三立的作品為反面教材,錢玄同更把用典與白話文對立起來,主張全盤摒棄典故。然而典故在白話文中的消退,不等於它在文學理論層面上的失敗,出身外文系的錢鍾書在1930年代便仍多次強調典故的作用。在這種背景下,陳寅恪對典故的重視實有濃厚的翻案意味。
本文正是循此思路著眼,考察陳寅恪如何通過對今典與古典的詮釋,重新確立典故在文學創作和實際批評中的價值。文章首先把陳寅恪的典故研究安置在文學批評的脈絡,全面整理和重構這種方法的形成過程、觀念義蘊和評鑑架構;繼而從文學理論及實際批評的角度闡明今典與古典考釋的共同學術預設,深化大家對典故批評的暸解;最後會對這套方法的漏洞和詮釋局限作出客觀的評析,反思陳寅恪的論述是否足以回應五四以來有關用典的批評。
Chen Yinke’s research focused on scholarship both ancient and modem, as well as both Chinese and foreign. Throughout his tenure as a professor in the Tsinghua University Departments of Chinese and History starting in 1931, he was constantly concerned with the exegesis of literary works. During his late years, he even categorized his related research exclusively into the studies of classical and contemporary allusion, and developed a unique critical framework. His emphasis on allusion directly opposed the voices against the use of allusion that arose at the outset of the New Culture Movement. In advocating his “Eight-Don’ts-ism” against allusion, Hu Shi frequently quoted Chen Sanli’s poems as negative examples. Qian Xuantong even placed allusion as the antithesis of vernacular Chinese and urged the complete repudiation of all allusions. Despite their diminishing use in vernacular Chinese, how ever, allusion still had its place in the field of literary theory. During the early 1930s, Qian Zhongshu, a gifted student in the Department of Foreign Languages of Tsinghua University, still emphasized the positive sides of allusion. Nevertheless, Chen Yinke's emphasis on allusion in his research was still considered a revolt against the general trend at the time.
In consideration of this particular background, this paper investigates how Chen Yinke reestablished the value of allusion in the fields of literary creation and practical criticism through the interpretation of classical and contemporary allusion. It starts with integrating Chen Yinke’s studies of allusion into the context of literary criticism, and reorganizes and reconstructs the formation process, conceptual significance and evaluation framework of his methods. Then the common theoretical assumptions underlying both classical and contemporary allusion are delineated from the perspective of literary and practical criticism, so as to deepen our understanding of the allusive criticism. In the last section, this paper provides an objective assessment of the shortcomings and limitations of Chen Yinke’s research methods. It also evaluates the validity of Chen Yinke’s arguments against the challenges and criticisms of allusion popularized by the May Fourth Movement. Copyright © 2019 臺灣國立政治大學中文系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)341-388
Journal政大中文學報
Volume31
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

李貴生(2019):陳寅恪典故考釋批評觀念及其實踐方法析論,《政大中文學報》,31,頁341-388。

Keywords

  • 陳寅恪
  • 典故
  • 典故批評
  • 文學批評
  • 文學理論
  • Chen Yinke
  • Allusion
  • Allusive criticism
  • Literary criticism
  • Literary theory
  • Alt. title: An analysis of the critical ideas and practice of Chen Yinke’s studies of allusion