進化論與基督宗教:孫中山的觀點

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Abstract

過去學界指出孫中山推崇進化論,與他的基督教信仰有矛盾。本文針對這個問題,進一步爬梳史料,希望釐清孫中山的宗教觀。主要觀點和發現包括:一、1906、1907 年前後,宮崎滔天認為孫中山的基督教信仰狀況正值高峰;二、孫中山對當時歐美關於「科學與宗教」的討論有相當認識,他也知悉「基督徒進化論者」這一群體;三、本文考訂孫中山1918 年推崇備至的《宗教破產》,不是尼采的《上帝已死》,而是麥奎勃的The Bankruptcy of Religion;四、孫中山老師康德黎、友人林百克都肯定達爾文成就,又信仰上帝。他們二人一直認為孫是虔誠基督徒;五、孫中山一直認為,他在倫敦蒙難時得蒙上帝保佑;他認為耶穌是神,而不僅是最高人格的象徵。他從來沒否定基督教的上帝,並且至死申述這個觀點。
Academics have long maintained that Sun Yat Sen admired the theory of evolution, a position that would seem to conflict with his Christian faith. This study combs through extant historical sources in an effort to clarify Sun’s religious views. It reaches the following conclusions: 1) Around 1906-1907, Miyazaki Toten thought that Sun Yat Sen’s faith in Christianity had reached its peak; 2) Sun Yat Sen had a deep understanding of the contemporary Western debate over "the relationship between science and religion," and he was familiar with the existence of the Christian Evolutionists; 3) In 1918, Sun Yat Sen praised Joseph McCabe’s Religious Bankruptcy, not Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Anti-Christ; 4) Both Sun’s teacher James Cantlie and his friend Paul Linebarger recognized the achievements of Darwin, while still retaining their faith in God, and they always thought of Sun Yat Sen as a devout Christian; 5) Sun Yat Sen never changed his view that God helped him survive his detainment in London by the Chinese Imperial secret service in 1896. He maintained that Jesus Christ was God, rather than the supreme symbol of humanity, and he never denied the existence of the Christian God, confirming this view until his death. Copyright © 2016 國立清華大學.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)121-160
Journal清華學報
Volume46
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016

Citation

馮志弘(2016):進化論與基督宗教:孫中山的觀點,《清華學報》,46(1),頁121-160。

Keywords

  • 孫中山
  • 基督宗教
  • 進化論(演化論)
  • 康德黎
  • 林百克
  • 宮崎滔天
  • Sun Yat Sen
  • Christianity
  • Evolution
  • James Cantlie
  • Paul Linebarger
  • Miyazaki Toten
  • Alt. title: Sun Yat Sen’s views on evolution and Christianity