論戴東原氣論與漢儒元氣論的歧異

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

從學術史上講,清代經學特盛,而清代經學乂多被視為對漢代經學的復興,故清代學術常被稱為「漢學」。從思想史上講,「元氣」是漢代哲學家恆言,「元氣論」便自然成為一般思想史對漢儒哲學總描述的通稱;而清中葉經學家、思想家戴東原也多論「氣」。東原和漢代哲學家都標舉「氣」的觀念,與宋明理學家重視形上超越之「理」大異其趣。理氣之辨,是思想史上的大分歧。這種分歧,導致講思想史的學者,常將東原的氣論和漢儒的元氣論相混淆。本文的目的,就是要說明二者之間的歧異,釐清這種混淆。
結論認為,漢儒元氣論強調神秘的陰陽消息之氣的規律性、強調尊卑意識和奠基於宇宙生成的歷程。東原的氣論則強調「血氣心知」、揭示平等思想,並從「氣」之分殊的基礎上強調社群大生命。這三方面的不同,共同指向一項事實︰漢儒元氣論的關注點在「天上」,對神秘無垠的宇宙規律深具濃厚興趣;而東原氣論的關注點在「人間」,對基層民眾的生活與生命寄予無限關懷。
《孟子字義疏證》強調「血氣心知」、「氣化流行」,而未嘗有一次論及「元氣」。東原尤其看重「氣」觀念貫串於社群基礎。綜合而言,東原對於宇宙發生的過程,沒有多少興趣;對於群體人民的形體生命是否受到重視,則據理力爭,寸步不讓。將東原的思想置於十八世紀思想史背景考察,對於我們理解宋明理學到二十世紀中國思潮之間的發展,是有重要幫助的。
The classical studies of the Qing scholars, especially the scholars of the Qian-Jia (乾嘉) period, have always been interpreted as a revival of the Han classical studies (漢學). Dai-Zhen’s theory of “qi” (氣, air, material force) also has been interpreted as highly similar to, or even being derived from, the “yuan-qi” (元氣, origin air, origin material force) theory of the philosophers of Han dynasty. This paper focuses on the differences between the “qi” philosophy of Dai and that of the Han philosophers. Through clarifying the characteristics of Dai’s “qi” philosophy, we can see more clearly how Dai replaced the metaphysical meaning of the “qi” idea with his thought of communitarianism.
Three points are suggested to argue the differences between Dai and the Han philosophers. First of all, the Han philosophers emphasized the superstitious mechanism of the “yin” air and “yang” air, while Dai emphasized the physical and mental air within our body. Second, the Han philosophers admitted nobleness and inferiority within human society, while Dai believed the value of equality of mankind. Third, the Han philosophers focused more on the cosmological progress of the origin of the universe, while Dai derived the importance of ethnic relationship of society from his theory of the differentiation of mankind. In conclusion, Dai was not interested in the discussion of metaphysical issues. Instead, he put all his effort on reinterpreting the idea “qi” through defending the rights and desires that comes together with our physical life. Copyright © 2004 臺灣大學中國文學系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)215-254
Journal臺大中文學報
Volume21
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004

Citation

鄭吉雄(2004):論戴東原氣論與漢儒元氣論的歧異,《臺大中文學報》,21,頁215-254。

Keywords

  • 戴震
  • 元氣
  • 血氣心知
  • 社群
  • 平等
  • 分殊
  • Dai Zhen
  • Air
  • Qi
  • Yuan-qi
  • Material force
  • Communitarianism
  • Differentiation
  • Equality
  • Alt. title: On the Differences between Dai Zhen’s “Qi” theory and the Han Philosophers’ “Yuan qi” theory