論先秦思想史中的語言方法:義理與訓詁一體性新議

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

“語言”作為一種方法而不止是載體形塑了先秦思想史。傳統義理、訓詁之爭已屬不必要,因為語言既然是思想展開的方法與藝術,那麼義理和訓詁就是一體相融而非對立相斥。近代學科整合為“語言作為方法”塑造了成熟的環境,漢字的多義性則表明語言的變異常常透顯出意義的多層次性。鑲嵌了蘊含濃厚政教訓誨詞藻的神聖經典,為中國思想的語言方法啟導了源頭。孔子確立名教更奠定了語言的禮教倫理作用。戰國諸子如墨、道之批判儒家,針對的正是名教、名學方法的邏輯與理論,名家更以激烈的立場解構名教。荀子遂提出新名學,全面回應各種反名教的“名”論,為這段綿延數百年的“語言陳述”論辯暫時劃上了句號。
This essay argues that "language" is not only a "medium" carrying "meaning" but essentially a "method" which structures the development of Chinese intellectual history of the pre-Qin period. While Chinese character is the unification of visual form, sound and meaning, Chinese "philology", the study of the language as such, should not be limited to the study of verbal meaning of characters, likewise, the study of Chinese philosophy should not exclude the study of visual form and sound of Chinese characters. Base on the artistic "language discourses" in the Five Classics, Confucius declares his "ming jiao" (teaching of Names) in order to reinstate the social and political order by connecting/binding the moral meaning of ethic "names" to their sounds and visual forms, ethical responsibility will then be assigned to people in the society via the unification of "ming" (name) and "shi" (content). Later philosophers of the Warring State period respond to and criticize on the "ming jiao" by redefining/reinterpreting the relationship of "ming" and "shi". The debates among philosophers on "language" construct a grand picture of "language discourses" and draw the main theme of Chinese intellectual history of the pre-Qin period. Copyright © 2018 山東大學.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)38-67
Journal文史哲
Volume2018
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

Citation

鄭吉雄(2018):論先秦思想史中的語言方法:義理與訓詁一體性新議,《文史哲》,2018(5),頁38-67。

Keywords

  • 語言
  • 經典
  • 名教
  • 名學
  • 義理
  • 訓詁
  • Alt. title: Early Chinese intellectual history in language discourse: Reexamining the synchronicity of philological and philosophical approaches