秦經典「行」字字義的原始與變遷:兼論「五行」

鄭吉雄, 楊秀芳, 朱歧祥, 劉承慧

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

本文四位作者選擇了先秦經典中的「行」字,分別從字形、語音、語法、思想等幾個途徑進行分析。結論認爲,「行」在先秦經典中有行走、道路、行爲、德行、行列、軌跡諸義,其意義群顯示此一語言運用非常成熟。後人雖然很難將「行」字各種意義發展的先後年代排列出來,但綜合而觀,道路、行爲和德行之「行」都涉及對與錯的價值判斷,行走和道路之「行」都含有運動發展之義,〈洪範〉和《郭店楚簡‧五行》以此爲基礎,汲取《易經》循環往復思想,而發展出「五福」、「五事」、「時行」等觀念。其後陰陽家更進一步發展出「相生相勝」的五行思想。《郭店楚簡》將「仁、義、禮、智、聖」稱爲「五行」,陰陽家將「金、木、水、火、土」稱爲「五德」,「德」、「行」二字兼攝自然與人文之義,尤其顯示其密切關係。以此爲例,經典之中的許多具有抽象含義的字與詞,不應該單獨從字形或語音去討論其本義,而應該更全面地透過各種知識去考察其意義群,去了解其意義的發展與變遷。
This paper discusses the original meaning of the idea xing and its extension in pre-Qin classical literature, from pictographic, phonetic, syntactic and philosophical approaches. Though the character xing is simply the form of a "crossroad,” the original meaning of it should be "walking,” according to phonetic analysis. In different paragraphs of different classics of the pre-Qin period, we have found that the character xing invokes different meanings such as road, act, moral conduct, queue, roll, trail, revolution, etc. in different textual contexts. Though it is not easy for us to rebuild the chronological development of these meanings, we can still see that all of them import value judgments at the root of the ”meaning tree” which contains the spirit of rationalism: judging of right and wrong, and a sense of development and revolution. Based on these connotations, the notion wuxing used both in the "Hongfan” of the Classic of Documents and the "Wuxing” of the Guodian Chujian leads to new terms such as wufu "five fortunes,” wushi "five moral behaviors,” and shixing "alternation of moralities.” Later on, the philosophers of the Yinyang-wuxing school even introduced the idea of wude zhongshi "the five agents taking turns to succeed one another,” by which they emphasize the rotation of the five natural agents as well as the five virtues. That is, the terms de (virtue) and xing (walking) refer both to their literal and inner cultural meanings. This example reminds us that we should understand the meanings of these terms used in the ancient classics with a more comprehensive point of view instead of giving arbitrary conclusions inferred simply from their external form or speech sounds. Copyright © 2009 中央研究院中國文哲研究所.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)89-127
Journal中國文哲研究集刊
Volume35
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2009

Citation

鄭吉雄、楊秀芳、朱歧祥和劉承慧(2009):先秦經典「行」字字義的原始與變遷:兼論「五行」,《中國文哲研究集刊》,35,頁89-127。

Keywords

  • 五行
  • 時行
  • 德行
  • 洪範
  • 郭店楚簡
  • Xing
  • Wuxing
  • Shixing
  • Dexing
  • Hongfan
  • Guodian Chujian
  • Alt. title: The original meaning of the idea Xing and its extension in Chinese classics of the pre-Qin period