禪宗復興與女性靈性:當代中國女性修習跨國禪修

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Abstract

本文探討近期跨國禪修實踐的普及可能已改變當代中國女性禪修和禪宗復興的範式。過去二十年,隨著佛教現代化的影響,越來越多的中國僧侶和居士修行跨國禪修,如止禪和內觀禪。
有些修行者甚至到其他國家學習,並短期出家,就像其他世界各地的行者。回國的修行者在佛寺舉辦禪修營。在中國大陸,佛教尼眾和女居士不能進入禪堂。然而,在跨國禪修團體裡,中國女性擔當了積極和重要的角色。有些甚至成為老師和推動禪修和正念的先驅。這現象可能影響了近年一些傳統大乘禪宗寺院,容許尼眾和女居士於公共禪堂禪修。此外,少量的女眾道場有興建禪堂。透過田野考察研究資料,本文將探討中國女性禪修者在當代中國近來跨國禪修運動和禪宗復興的重要角色。
This paper explores how the recent popularity of transnational meditation practices may have changed the paradigm of women practicing meditation and Chan revival in contemporary China.
With the influence of Buddhist modernization, there has been an increasing number of Chinese monastics and lay people practising transnational meditation practices, such as samādhi and vipassanā, in various kinds of traditions in the past two decades. Some even travelled to other countries to learn meditation and even ordained as short-term monastics, like many yogis from all over the world. Returned travellers organized meditation retreats at Buddhist monasteries. Buddhist nuns and female lay cannot access to most Chan hall (cantang) of monasteries in mainland China. Nevertheless, among establishing transnational meditation communities, Chinese women have also taken active and important roles. Some nuns and laywomen even become teachers and pioneers promoting meditation and mindfulness. This phenomenon may have impacted on the traditional Mahayāna Chan monasteries to allow nuns and laywomen to practice at ‘public hall’ recently. Besides, a few Chan halls have been newly set up at nunneries. Drawing from ethnographic study in mainland China, this paper will examine the significant role of Chinese female meditators in the recent transnational meditation movement and Chan revival in contemporary China. Copyright © 2019 FoCaL-3.
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Citation

劉雅詩(2019.1):禪宗復興與女性靈性:當代中國女性修習跨國禪修,論文發表於「第四屆近現代漢傳佛教論壇:思議漢傳佛教在現代社會中之大變局」,台灣法鼓文理學院,台北市,台灣。

Keywords

  • Alt. title: Chan revival and female spirituality: Chinese women practicing transnational meditation in contemporary China