生命歷程增長與生命素質增長:香港中學佛化生命教育初探並與小學做對比研究

馮樹勳, 江浩民

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapters

Abstract

研究團隊曾發表〈香港小學佛化生命教育初探〉的論文,而在兒童至青少年階段,主要的生命場景,都是在學校中度過的。因此,研究團隊在完成了香港佛化教育的初探以後,顯然目光應朝向生命教育的另一階段――中學教育。以此因緣,研究團隊走訪了二十一所香港佛教中學,以見出「香港中學佛化生命教育」的實況。研究團隊在中學佛化生命探索之際,不斷反覆自我提問︰中學生由於其生命由純粹而駁雜,是可能引致其生命素質下降的根源。那麼難道我們建議他們不要成長嗎?可以拒絕由知識而帶來的「所知障」嗎?那麼學校和老師的角色又當如何?怎樣才算得是一位能導引生命的導師呢?凡斯種種,皆能緊扣生命素質的主題而問。
中學生較小學生的生命由純粹而駁雜,知識由「為學日益」而見長,但西方學者推行的道德教育,往往由於道德知識與道德行動分離,不能兼顧︰意願、行為和判斷三個層面的結合,才會出現「所知障」的問題。生命素質的提升,並非僅止於知識的提升而已,這亦正是重在知識與技巧的現代教育方向,尤其強調「基於果效的學習」(outcome based learning) 的主要盲點所在。
所有成功的生命素質教育,必然具有以下兩種特質︰其一、必須對知識有「辯證式」的提升,才有真正生命素質的提升。易言之,不能光看問題的正面,也必須從反面思考,最後把正反兩面結合,才看提升到新的境界。這正是青原惟信禪師「見山是山」、「見山不是山」、「再見山是山」的思考模式。不過,這個新的境界,也會變成你現時的正面思維,必須不斷再經歷前述的提升,才會再有生命素質的提升。
其二(甚至是最決定性的因素)、生命導師的最重要功能與價值――以身為範。前引青原惟信禪師的偈語,其重點不惟落在智慧境界的提升上,而在於個人體會「親見知識」,才「有箇入處」,又親嘗其內心之轉折、奮鬥,才可說「得箇休歇處」。能有內心的體會,才「許汝親見老僧」。如果純粹談知見,有人既能完全把握「見山是山」等三層辯證的意涵,則他已在智能上,超越了一般的見地。則准許他親見老僧,難道是為了嘉獎其聰明才智嗎?如是,又稱得上是生命的學問嗎?因此,禪師要親見此人,乃要把自身生命中經歷的種種,傳授予此見道之人,讓他在生命上有真實的提升和鞏固也。則所謂生命導師者,非惟內容上指導,而在內心的體貼、點撥、提撕之地用功也!
The research team has published previously a “Preliminary Study of Buddhist Life Education at Primary Schools in Hong Kong”. Since most of one’s early life is spent in formal education, the team has gone on to investigate life education in the next phase in 21 Buddhist secondary schools. During this process, the team has kept questioning themselves: “Should we discourage students to grow up if complexity in life is the main cause of their deteriorating life quality? Can we refuse hindrances to wisdom-knowledge (jñeyāvaraṇa)? What roles should schools and teachers play? What comprise a life mentor?” Every question asked is relevant to life quality.
A secondary school student has a life complicated (less pure) than a primary school student’s. Knowledge is gained by everyday learning. However, the moral education western scholars have proposed separates moral knowledge and moral actions, one cannot be aware of both. Jñeyāvaraṇa occurs when problems from will-, action-, and judgment-levels combine. Improving life quality does not only involve an increase in knowledge. This is also the blind spot of outcome-based learning, which is emphasized in the modern education direction, focusing on knowledge and skills.
Every successful life quality education possesses two particulars. One is dialectical growth in knowledge. In other words, one should view an issue from both the positive and negative sides to see a new horizon when combining two. This is exactly the philosophy of Master Qingyuan Weixin: see a hill as a hill, and then see a hill as not a hill, end up seeing a hill as a hill again. But this new horizon then becomes the new positive side. The process must be repeated to keep life quality improving.
The second and the most critical feature is the function and value of life mentors–leading by example. The philosophy mentioned does not only focus on improving knowledge and wisdom, but also personal experience. One cannot have peace without mentally struggling; one cannot see the great mentor before experiencing himself. If only knowledge is considered, when a man master the philosophy, does seeing the mentor only mean to appreciate his knowledge? If so, can this be regarded as the knowledge of life? The great mentor sees him to share with him his experience in life, to improve and consolidate his life. This is what we call a life mentor. A life mentor does only not teach people knowledge, but spiritually guide. Copyright © 2020 香港中文大學人間佛教研究中心.
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Title of host publication《深入緣起.集眾法寶:人間佛教在東亞與東南亞的實踐》
Editors 陳劍鍠
Place of Publication香港
Publisher香港中文大學人間佛教研究中心
Pages1287-1308
Volume下冊
ISBN (Print)9789887413509
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

Citation

馮樹勳和江浩民(2020):生命歷程增長與生命素質增長:香港中學佛化生命教育初探並與小學做對比研究,輯於陳劍鍠主編《深入緣起.集眾法寶:人間佛教在東亞與東南亞的實踐》下冊,(頁1287-1308),香港,香港中文大學人間佛教研究中心。

Keywords

  • 佛化教育
  • 生命歷程
  • 生命素質
  • 辯證
  • 以身為範
  • Buddhist education
  • Life experience
  • Life quality
  • Dialogues
  • Leading by examples
  • Alt. title: Growth in life experience and life quality: Reflections on Buddhist life education at secondary schools in Hong Kong