王夫之「詩史」說析辨

張歡歡

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

「詩史」說自唐代孟棨提出,繁衍出「敘事」、「實錄」、「忠君愛國」等內涵,多在肯定層面論說。至明清之際,王夫之的觀點頗為特出,他對「詩史」諸多內涵均加以批評,更在整體上否定此說。對抗史對詩的陵越,是船山在處理詩史關係時的根本主張,其言「詩道性情」,認為「史」 不能代「詩」 而言「性之情」。根本而言,王夫之出於人心危淺的儒者意識,賦予詩體以獨特意義,期望藉詩之力量導情復性,於詩之審美中尋求道德之潛力,這是他的詩歌理想;而「詩史」 對此僅有破壞,而無建構,故其深惡此說。本文將分析王夫之對「詩史」 部分內涵的批評,論述他於明清之際推崇「詩史」之歷史語境下的嚴峻批判態度由來,並闡述他所堅持的「詩」之獨特意義。
Since Meng Qi from the Tang Dynasty proposed the concept of “Shishi” (Poetry-History), multiple interpretations, most of them were on an affirmative level, had been created, such as "narrate", "record as the author has witnessed", "loyal and patriotic" etc. By the time of late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, Wang Fuzhi (1619-1692)'s viewpoint stood out by criticized not only part of the interpretations but the whole concept of "Shishi". When dealing with the relation between "history" and "poetry", Wang Fuzhi's fundamental proposition was to defy history’s violation of poetic form. Wang Fuzhi stressed that poetry should express “Xing” (human nature) and “Qing” (feelings). The history’s violation of poetic form would undermine the expression of Qing and therefore weaken the power of it, which could enhance the cultivation of people and help brace up the national power. Once the history was emphasized egregiously in poetic form, the essence of poetry would be vandalized. Essentially, Wang Fuzhi endowed the poetic form of a unique meaning due to his consciousness of Confucianism. He hoped that the power of poetry would guide Qing to Xing. This was his poetic ideal to seek moral potential in the aesthetics of poetry. Therefore, he rebelled at the concept of “Shishi” which impeded destructively. This paper analyzes Wang Fuzhi's criticism of “Shishi”, discusses the reason for his unique critical attitude amid the atmosphere of this concept during the late Ming and early Qing and explains his interpretations of poetry. Copyright © 2020 國立中正大學中國文學系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)137-164
Journal中正漢學研究
Volume35
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

Citation

張歡歡(2020):王夫之「詩史」說析辨,《中正漢學研究》,35,頁137-164。

Keywords

  • 王夫之
  • 詩史
  • 杜甫
  • 性情
  • 明清詩學
  • Wang Fuzhi
  • Shishi
  • Du Fu
  • Xing-Qing
  • Poetics of Ming and Qing dynasties
  • PG student publication
  • Alt. title: On Wang Fuzhi’s criticism of “Shishi” (Poetry-history)