漢語歷史語言學框架中的《無量壽經》語法梵漢對勘研究:以梵語名詞工具格、從格和處所格的漢譯為例

李博寒

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Theses

Abstract

漢譯佛經語言研究是漢語歷史語言學的研究領域之一,以漢譯佛經、中土撰述和佛教文學作品為研究材料,考察其中不同於中土文獻的特殊語言現象。在描述特殊語言現象的基礎上,從語言接觸的角度探討通過佛經翻譯,以梵語為代表的源頭語對目的語漢語的歷時演變產生的影響。
本研究以漢譯佛經《無量壽經》 及其平行梵本為研究材料,通過梵漢對勘的方法,建立《無量壽經》東漢至北宋五個漢譯本與梵本在詞語層面的對應語料庫(共 25 萬字)。以該語料庫為研究工具,不僅可以考察《無量壽經》 對梵語名詞性、數、格,動詞時、體、態、語氣等語法變化的翻譯方式,而且可以對其中特殊的詞語、特殊的句法結構、特殊的語序等特殊語言現象及其來源有更直觀的認識,從而進一步探討這些特殊語言現象對漢語歷時演變產生的影響。
本研究運用《無量壽經》梵漢對勘語料庫, 考察了東漢支婁迦讖至唐菩提流志的四個譯本中對梵語工具格(instrumental case)、從格(ablative case)和處所格(locative case)的翻譯方式。 在此基礎上,以另一部重要的漢譯佛經《維摩詰經》為比較對象,考察《無量壽經》和《維摩詰經》不同時代譯本對梵語格變化翻譯方式的異同。
在考察《無量壽經》和《維摩詰經》對梵語格變化翻譯方式的基礎上,著重探討其中的介詞短語“於 NP”、“從 NP”和後置詞短語“VP 時” 因對譯梵語格變化而產生的特殊用法。在《無量壽經》和《維摩詰經》中,介詞“於”、“從”和後置詞“時”的特殊用法有: 1. 特殊的位置:(1) 由於受到梵本語序的影響, 在《無量壽經》中,對譯從格的介詞短語“從 NP”和“於 NP”位於動作作者之前,指示起始處。(2)在《維摩詰經》中,對譯從格的“於 NP”位於求索動詞“求”之前,指示求索的來源。 2. 特殊的搭配:(1)在《無量壽經》中,由於對譯梵本的從格變化,指示起始處的“於 NP”可以與非運行類動詞“得”“證”搭配。(2)在《無量壽經》和《維摩詰經》中,由於對譯梵本的具格變化,介詞“從”可以與抽象名詞搭配,指示依據。(3)在《無量壽經》中,後置詞短語“VP 時”可以與假設連詞搭配,構成“假設連詞+VP 時”結構,指示假設條件。
在考察《無量壽經》和《維摩詰經》中介詞短語和後置詞短語特殊用法的基礎上,以指示依據的“從 NP”和指示假設條件的“若 VP 時”為研究對象,結合其他漢譯佛經中的用例,通過與同期、後期中土文獻中“從 NP”和“VP 時”的比較,討論漢譯佛經中“從 NP”和“VP 時”的特殊用法對中土文獻中“從”的搭配範圍和“時”功能演變產生的影響。 1. 在敦煌變文中,介詞“從”受到來自漢譯佛經的影響,可以與抽象名詞搭配,指示依據。 2. 在近代漢語白話文獻中,受到來自漢譯佛經的影響,“時”可以與假設連詞搭配,形成“若 VP 時”結構。“若 VP 時”結構的產生推動了“時”語法化為假設語氣助詞。
最後,以本研究中考察的介詞“從”、後置詞“時”和時彥研究中討論的人稱代詞複數標記“輩”、動相補語“已”、助動詞“為”為例,將由於佛經翻譯造成的漢語功能詞語法演變總結為以下幾個步驟: 1. 搭配範圍的擴大。 2. 指示範疇或功能的擴展。 3. 詞性的改變。這一演變過程即是 Heine & Kuteva(2005)中所說的“語法複製”(grammatical replication)。
The study is a research of the language of Chinese Buddhist translations under the framework of Chinese historical linguistics. And investigates Sanskrit grammar’s influence on the evolution of Chinese grammar through the translation of Buddhist texts.
Firstly, a Sanskrit-Chinese parallel database is built upon the word-to-word collation of the Sanskrit original version and the five existing Chinese translations of The Larger Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra (Wuliangshou Jing, 無量壽經). Analyzing the Sanskrit-Chinese parallel database, the study discusses the translation of Sanskrit instrumental case, ablative case and locative case in four Chinese versions (Lokakṣema’s of Eastern Han, Zhi Qian’s of the Three Kingdoms, Buddhabhadra’s of Liu Song, and Bodhiruci’s of Tang Dynasty) of Wuliangshou Jing. Comparison between three translations of Wuliangshou Jing with the translations of Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra (Weimojie Jing, 維摩詰經) of the same Buddhist translation periods (namely, the Ancient Translation, Old Translation and New Translation period), unveils the similarities and differences of translations of Sanskrit cases in different Buddhist texts, both synchronically and diachronically.
Secondly, the study compares the language phenomena in Chinese Buddhist translations and in Chinese aboriginal texts within or prior to the same periods, for the purpose of finding out the special phenomena in Buddhist translations attributable to the translation of Sanskrit texts. The research objects are two preposition phrases “Yu 於 NP” and “Cong 從 NP” and a postposition phrase “VP Shi 時”. In Wuliangshou Jing and Weimojie Jing, two special phenomena are noticed. The first phenomenon is special word order. In Wuliangshou Jing and Weimojie Jing, preposition phrases “Yu NP” and “Cong NP”, which denote the starting point or the origin of an action, are put before the agent of an action, following the word order in Sanskrit. The second phenomenon is special usage of the prepositions Yu, Cong and the postposition Shi. In Wuliangshou Jing, “Yu NP”, which denotes the starting point of an action, can modify the non-action verb “De 得” (gain) and “Zheng 證” (enlighten), which is the same in the translation of Sanskrit ablative case. In Wuliangshou Jing and Weimojie Jing, the NPs of the preposition “Cong”, which denotes the origin of an action, can be abstract nouns, due to the translation of Sanskrit instrumental case. In Wuliangshou Jing, the postposition phrase “VP Shi” can co-occur with hypothetical conjunction “Ruo 若” and forms the “Ruo VP Shi” structure to denote hypothetical conditions.
Thirdly, the study investigates the influence of Buddhist text translation on the evolution of the functions of the preposition “Cong” and the postposition “Shi”, through the comparison of Chinese Buddhist translations and aboriginal texts in later periods. In Buddhist popular narratives of Dunhuang Transformation Texts, the NPs of “Cong”, which denotes the origin of an action, can be polysyllabic abstract nouns, showing the influence of Chinese Buddhist translations. In pre-modern vernacular fictions, the emergence of hypothetical structure “Ruo VP Shi” prompt the grammaticalization of “Shi” (temporal noun>conditional particle>hypothetical modal particle).
As a result of the investigation, the study concludes that there are three evolutionary processes of Chinese functional words, under the influence of Sanskrit grammar: 1. Enlargement of collocation objects; 2. Extension of categories or functions; 3. Change of word classes from content words to functional words. These changes, by Heine & Kuteva’s definition (2005), are essentially grammatical replication. All rights reserved.
Original languageChinese
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • 漢語歷史語言學
  • 語言接觸
  • 佛教漢語
  • 漢譯佛經
  • 梵漢對勘
  • 語法複製
  • Chinese historical linguistics
  • Language contact
  • Buddhist Chinese
  • Chinese Buddhist translations
  • Sanskrit-Chinese collation
  • Grammatical replication
  • Alt. title: A Sanskrit-Chinese collation study of the larger Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra Grammar under the framework of Chinese historical linguistics: A case of the Chinese translations of Sanskrit instrumental, ablative and locative nouns
  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Education University of Hong Kong, 2017.