《東京夢華錄》是否“著其盛,正著其所以衰”:兼論宋人的“華胥之夢”

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

考察北宋以迄宋南渡時期著述,可以發現宋人筆下“華胥”一詞的涵義,很多時候都不是指向《列子》所載黄帝“夢遊華胥”的本義,而是指現實世界中最愜意的生活方式。晏殊、蘇軾、呂陶、王庭珪、趙鼎,更直接以“華胥”比喻城市繁華、歌舞昇平。這是孟元老以“華胥”比喻東京繁華的主要背景。
《東京夢華録》四次寫到“奢侈”、“侈奢”、“侈縱”、“侈靡”,都没有明顯批判意味。相反,書中序文强調“侈奢則長人精神”──運用“貶詞正用”的方式,藉此指出“奢侈”的觀念和生活方式,是東京繁華的重要體現。
比較《東京夢華録》、《都城紀勝》、《夢粱録》、《武林舊事》對於妓女、惡少年、游民等的描寫,可以發現孟元老對此等人物並無批評,其餘三部著作卻多作貶抑。雖然從“解讀史”的角度而論,《東京夢華録》足以引起諷喻的聯想;但考察文本的内證和相關外證,這種理解並不符合書中的主導觀念,也和孟元老對東京繁華的認知有所矛盾。
This article indicates:
1. By investigating works from the Northern Song to the southern migration of the Song Dynasty, meaning of “Huaxu” depicted by Song people mostly not referring to the original essence of “Dream of Huaxu” of Huangdi which recorded in Liezi. On the other hand, it indicated most satisfactory living style within the secular world. Yan Shu, Su Shi, Lu Tao, Wang Ting-gui and Zhao Ding even directly used “Huaxu” as a metaphor for peace and prosperity of city; which was also the major context for Meng Yuan-lao to use “Huaxu” as a metaphor for prosperity of Dongjing (Kaifeng).
2. Dongjing Menghua Lu used the vocabulary “extravagance” for four times without an apparent critical attitude. Conversely, its preface “manipulated the derogatory terms for complimentary use” to emphasize idea of “extravagance strengthen people's spirit”; which indicated “extravagant” value and living style was an important manifestation of Dongjing's prosperity.
3. By comparing depictions towards prostitutes, evil youngsters and loafers from Dongjing Menghua Lu, Du Cheng Ji Sheng (Documenting Capital's Glories), Meng Liang Lu (Dream of Grain) and Wu lin jiu shi (Old stories of Lin'an), Meng Yuan-lao was revealed not criticizing against these characters in Dongjing Menghua Lu, but the other three works derogated these people obviously.
4. Analyzing from perspective of interpretative History, Dongjing Menghua Lu may capable for intriguing association of irony; nonetheless, internal textual evidences as well as relevant external evidences had proven such interpretation did not comply with the main concept of the book, and even contrasted to the comprehension of Dongjing's prosperity from Meng Yuan-lao. Copyright © 2016 香港浸會大學.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)93-125
Journal人文中國學報
Volume23
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Citation

馮志弘(2016):《東京夢華錄》是否“著其盛,正著其所以衰”:兼論宋人的“華胥之夢”,《人文中國學報》,23,頁93-125。

Keywords

  • 《東京夢華録》
  • 華胥
  • 盛世與衰世
  • 奢侈
  • Dongjing menghua Lu
  • Reminiscences of the eastern capital
  • Huaxu
  • Flourishing age verse decadent age
  • Extravagant
  • Alt. title: Does Dongjing Menghua Lu (Reminiscences of the Eastern capital)reflect reasons of decline by depicting the prosperity of the Northern Song Dynasty?: A concurrent discussion for “dream of Huaxu” of Song people