東亞「病婦」:清末西醫產科在廣州和香港的發展

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Abstract

女性的身體自十七世紀開始被西方醫學理論視為「病態」,生產在西方也被視為有高度風險、近乎生病,導致分娩漸漸被「醫療化」。本文探討十九世紀西醫產科在華南地區的發展,從西方醫學進入中國的起點廣州切入考察,並與鄰近香港的情況進行比較。無論是在半殖民狀態的廣州或是在英國殖民地香港,西方醫學成了外來帝國侵略中國的重要理據和工具。但是,產科卻是當中較「不成功」的範疇,西式接生方式在中國始終無法成為主流。為了克服這個障礙,西方醫學在「性別政治」與「醫療空間」上做出妥協,才使得西醫產科成為華人婦女生產時的諸多選項之一。這番妥協的過程,不但促進了美國和歐洲女醫生的出現,同時亦給予華人婦女參與醫療事務的機會,讓她們得以擔任醫生及護士的角色。
Since the seventeenth century, Western medicine emphasized the “imperfect” or “pathologized” female body; in this framework, childbirth became increasingly medicalized due to its high risks. The concept of “medicalized childbirth” was introduced to China via medical missionaries in the nineteenth century. This article compares how Western obstetrics was introduced to Canton and Hong Kong. Western medicine was introduced to China via Canton, while Hong Kong became a British colony after the Opium War. Despite the different political situations, Western medicine became an important tool of and rationale for Western imperialism. Obstetrics, however, was a rather unproductive category. In order to overcome both cultural and gender boundaries, Western physicians had to make compromises in the areas of “gender politics” and “medical space” in order for Western obstetrics to become a feasible option for Chinese families. The process allowed women to receive medical training in Europe and the United States, as well as opportunities for these women to work overseas. Chinese women were also given the chance to work in the medical sphere as female doctors and nurses. Copyright © 2020 中央研究院近代史研究所.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)37-94
Journal中央硏究院近代史硏究所集刊
Volume107
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

Citation

姜鍾赫(2020):東亞「病婦」:清末西醫產科在廣州和香港的發展,《中央硏究院近代史硏究所集刊》,107,頁37-94。

Keywords

  • 產科史
  • 醫療史
  • 婦女史
  • 香港史
  • 博濟醫院
  • History of obstetrics
  • History of medicine
  • Gender history
  • History of Hong Kong
  • Canton Hospital
  • Alt. title: “Sick women” of East Asia: The introduction of western obstetrics to canton and Hong Kong in the late Qing