文學如何成為知識?:文學批評、文學研究與文學教育

陳國球

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

「文學」在現代社會有其非常獨特的存在模式。它游移於不同的空間,而不同的社群各自有其參與的途徑。它可能以一種「感覺」、「品味」、「素養」的形式存在於日常生活中;也可以是一門知識,在學校教育中佔上一個或輕或重的據點。現今社會重實效、重產出,文學往往被人輕視,然而教育體制內似乎總會留給文學一個席位。究竟,「文學」如何進入現代學術體制?何以成為一門知識?都是值得探討的問題。 現代教育的其中一個重要功能是「知識」的生產或者傳播,文學要廁身其中,難免從虛轉實,由「感受」、「修養」轉換成可揣摩、可傳授的知識實體。以西方學術和教育的進程看來,文學之成為研究和學習的對象,正是透過文學「批評」的學術化而完成。隨着中國學術現代化的步履,西方「文學批評」概念漸次引進,國人以現代意識省察古代文學論述,大學開設相關課程,「中國文學批評史」正式納入學術書寫活動。種種事態,不斷催化刺激「文學」成為「知識」的歷程,更有學者考慮設立不論國界、中外文學共冶一爐的文學教育。雖然這些構思還未有機會正式實踐,在二十一世紀的今天重新檢視這一段歷史旅程,或者對我們認識文化傳承與「現代化」之間的種種矛盾與糾葛,思考未來學術以至教育的發展路向,不無幫助。
The modes of existence of “literature” in modern society are multifarious. It can exist as an instance of “sensibility,” an expression of “taste,” or a component of the cultured personality, and so on. Notably, it can also be a branch of “knowledge,” occupying an eminent position in the modern education system. Yet this placement of literature was not as legitimate and natural as it is now thought to be. One of the major objectives of modern education is to produce and provide “knowledge.” In order to incorporate literature into the education system, the public has to be convinced that it does involve a body of knowledge which is substantial enough to be studied in class. This paper examines the process of positioning literature in modern Chinese universities. Similar to a process in Britain in the late 19th and early 20th century, the legitimacy of literature in Chinese university education has been reinforced by the introduction of the scientific method of literary criticism, initiated by English critics I. A. Richards, William Empson and the like. The Western influence was so immense that some scholars even aspired to establish a discipline of literary study with no national boundaries. Although the initiative has not been materialized, it might serve as a good reference for further deliberation on our literary education in the new century. Copyright © 2010 北京大學中國語言文學系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)261-284
Journal中國文學學報
Volume1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010

Citation

陳國球(2010):文學如何成為知識?:文學批評、文學研究與文學教育,《中國文學學報》,1,頁261-284。

Keywords

  • 文學
  • 知識
  • 中文系
  • 語文學
  • 文學批評
  • Literature
  • Knowledge
  • Chinese department
  • Philology
  • Literary criticism
  • Alt. title: Literature as knowledge? Literary criticism, literary study, and literary education