政治的法律化:冷戰時期香港的地緣政治處境及其法治的鞏固

蔡俊威, 李家翹

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

本文將探討1949至1967年間香港法治體系建設背後的政治與政府的策略考量。它將指出,縱然香港的法治制度在19世紀末已初具形態,但其發展至完備,關鍵就是1949年以後的二、三十年間。香港在該時段內面對敏感的地緣政治處境,為包括中國國民黨、共產黨,甚至美、蘇等外來勢力所爭奪,促使英殖政府強化香港的法治,使之有了今日所見法治的三個重要元素:法律的普遍適用性、司法獨立、檢察獨立。法治,對英殖政府而言,是其權力操作的工具。它將之完善,並把其所面對的地緣政治挑戰化為法律問題,交予法律程序處理,便能抽身於不易駕馭的政治問題,更因而獨善其身,有利其對香港的管治。這是政治的法律化。本文還將指出,香港的經驗並非孤立的本土經驗,以地緣政治的學術角度重新審視法治在香港建立與發展的歷史,會發現其特殊性與普遍性。地緣政治的角度,能為相關問題的思考提供現有的「文明使命論」、「法律強加論」及「互動論」以外的理論框架。
This paper examines the consolidation of Hong Kong's rule of law system in 1949-1967. It points out that Hong Kong was delicately situated in a geopolitical environment in which it was claimed and contested by major players in the Cold War including the Chinese Communists, the Taiwanese Nationalists and the Americans. To sustain its rule against the geopolitical challenge, the colonial government strategically strengthened Hong Kong's legal framework according to the principles of generality of law, independence of the judiciary and independence of prosecution, making it an instrumentality of power. Political issues could then be depoliticized as legal cases and judgments were to be made by the courts. The government could refrain from taking sides in the political matters involving the contesting forces. In other words, the legalization of politics resulted in the reinforcement of Hong Kong's rule of law. The geopolitical analysis of the making of Hong Kong's rule of law presents an understanding that differs from the existing analytical approaches, namely, the "civilizing mission" analysis, the "imposition of law" explanation, and the perspective that focuses on the interactions between the colonizers and the colonized. Copyright © 2017 思與言雜誌社.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)187-225
Journal思與言:人文與社會科學雜誌
Volume55
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017

Citation

蔡俊威和李家翹(2017):政治的法律化:冷戰時期香港的地緣政治處境及其法治的鞏固,《思與言:人文與社會科學雜誌》,55(2),頁187-225。

Keywords

  • 香港
  • 法治
  • 地緣政治
  • Hong Kong
  • The rule of law
  • Geopolitics
  • Alt. title: Legalization of politics: The geopolitical situations of Hong Kong and the consolidation of its rule of law in the Cold War