揚雄的美學思想:揚雄對西漢儒家審美觀的反省

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Abstract

揚雄是中國美學史上,其中一位最富爭議的思想家,他對藝術觀念的反覆探討,以致後學對其思想聚訟紛紜,乃是由於揚雄是西漢儒家審美觀,最具反省能力的藝術家。在面對先秦既有的「美言不文」價值主調,與「詩賦欲麗」的新興模式對立情態下,揚雄堅持在家國價值理想的範圍內,強調文學必須重視形相的直覺訴求。是則,他在承繼《詩經》重視文學教化功能的同時,強調情志在審美的重要意義。揚雄更釐清了美感雖然依附於感官,但快感並不同於美感,明確地區別藝術欣賞與欲望滿足的殊異。最後,更以人格成長的歷程,在傳統文與質的觀念下,探討何謂恰如其分的表現與情趣。揚雄發揮的是典型「有我」的儒家文學觀點,他對魏晉文學有著極其具大的影響,並開啓了以人類品格為文學藝術品格之先河。
Yang Xiong is one of the most controversial philosophers in the Chinese aesthetic history. The fact that he was the most reflective artist in topic of the Confucian aesthetic model in the Qin Dynasty contributed to his repeated aesthetic investigations as well as the arguments and inconsistent interpretations towards his thoughts. On one hand he had to follow the Qin Confucian aesthetic perspectives, and on the other he had to take into account the new characteristics as seen in the Xi Han literary world, he thus had to clarify gradually the different major topics in the art world.Yang Xiong has extremely significant contributions to the reconstruction of Confucian aesthetics, in which he inherited the teachings of the previous scholars and inspired his successors. Facing the contradicting if not opposing situation of the emphasis on the value of 'Mei Yan Bu Wen' and the newly established model of 'Shi Fu Yu Li,' Yang Xiong insisted on emphasising the subjective aspect of literature with the focus on expressing oneself, within the boundaries of national values and patriotic dreams. As a result, while he aligned with Shi Jing and continued with the focus on the educational function of literature, he also emphasized the important concept of considering aesthetics as the centre of emotions.Yang Xiong also distinguished the differences between artistic appreciation and gratification of lust, by clarifying the proposition that although beauty is to some extent attached to senses, a pleasant sensation may not necessarily equals to an aesthetic feeling. Last but not the least, he investigated the standard of appropriate expression and tastefulness under the traditional concept of internal morality and practical manifestation, taking the journey of personal growth as an example. Yang Xiong has displayed the typical 'You Wo' perspective that can be found in Confucian literature, and he has significant influence on the literature from the Wei and Jin Dynasties. Moreover, he was definitely a pioneer in establishing human characters as artistic characters in the literature. Copyright © 2010 東華大學中國語文學系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)21-50
Journal東華漢學
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010

Citation

馮樹勳(2010):揚雄的美學思想:揚雄對西漢儒家審美觀的反省,《東華漢學》,12,頁21-50。

Keywords

  • 揚雄
  • 美學
  • 儒家
  • 美言不文
  • 詩賦欲麗
  • Yang Xiong
  • Aesthetic
  • Confucian
  • Mei Yan Bu Wen
  • Shi Fu Yu Li
  • Alt. title: Yang Xiong's aesthetic philosophy: The reconstruction of confucian aesthetics in Xi Han dynasty