戴東原“群”“欲”觀念的思想史回溯

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

本文從戴東原“群”“欲”概念上溯先秦儒家禮義起源於飲食男女。飲食之道可以引喻個人與眾人生命的安穩與否,男女婚配則可匹配天地五行之義,故所謂飲食男女,實又不僅僅止於飽食與性欲。儒家以血緣為基礎,以兩性生命之結合為開端,開展各種社群關係的價值,究其實則俱不離形體生命的繁衍;而價值觀念的形成,也都不離血氣心知合一的身體。自“欲”至“群”,人類社會始簡終大、始寡終眾,儒家倫理價值觀念由此而生。戴東原群、欲之論,與先秦儒典舊義有承繼發展之關係。先秦儒者重視飲食男女之身體活動的道德價值提升與開展,東原則特別勾勒出一個分殊與一體並存的世界,注入儒典尤其是《孟子》之中,提揭其中的社群意識。東原的案例提醒了我們:對於先秦儒家經典的義理,在宋明理學典範性的解釋以外,還有另一條康莊大道可以依循。
The main theme of this paper is to clarify the notion of ”desire” within the context of Dai Zhen's thought by examining the cultural meaning of ”yinshi” (food and drink) and ”nannu” (having sex) as two main factors in the Confucian rituals of the pre-Qin period. I am not intending to argue physical satisfaction of eating and sexual intercourse as the ultimate goal of Confucianism. Human needs food and drinks to survive, yet food and drinks are also treated as holy sacrifices. A man and a woman can have sex anytime in any places, but the holiness of marriage and family value can only be guaranteed by the complicated rites and by interpreting marriage as a humanistic symbol of the fusion of yin (negative) and yang (positive) of the universe. The distance in between rituals and physical satisfaction may not be obvious, but the difference is huge. Through the clarification of the intellectual meaning of desire, we can understand the consciousness of community of the pre-Qin Confucian philosophers and how Dai Zhen inherits and develops their thought through the study of ancient rituals. Copyright © 2008 湖南大學期刊社.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)41-52
Journal湖南大學學報(社會科學版)
Volume22
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008

Citation

鄭吉雄(2008):戴東原“群”“欲”觀念的思想史回溯,《湖南大學學報(社會科學版)》,22(1),頁41-52。

Keywords

  • 戴震
  • 社群
  • 儒家
  • 飲食男女
  • Dai Zhen
  • Community
  • Desire
  • Confucianism
  • Rituals
  • Food and sex
  • Alt. title: Thinking history review of Dai Dongyuan's notion of "community" and "desire"