從粵客語語料看進行體標記的特性與語法化

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

漢語的體貌標記多是動詞後綴,而學界一般認為這些標記來自動詞,如普通話「了、着、過」。除了廣州和香港粵語用「緊」來標進行體,還有很多客家話次方言「緊」標進行體。楊永龍﹝2005﹞認為南方漢語方言的持續體標記經常來自「穩緊」義的形容詞。我們嘗試用早期及今日的語料來分析粵語和客語「緊」的體貌功能以及語法表現。結果顯示,客語「緊」具標持續體等功能已符合楊永龍的演變模式。相反地,粵語「緊」就不可能來自「穩緊」義形容詞。粵語「緊」跟有界動作配合時,無論在十九世紀還是今日的語料中,它都會標將近體,不會標持續體。在這兩個互相對立的體貌概念中,粵語「緊」的體貌特性是選擇標將近體。造意味著粵語「緊」在獲得進行體功能的過程當中,不可能先具備過持續體功能。我們認為當我們探討體貌標記來源時,必須考慮此標記的歷時和共時體貌特性。
Aspectual markers in Chinese are typically verbal suffixes, and it is often claimed that they are derived from verbs, e.g. Mandarin “LE, ZHE, GUO“. According to corpus data, we find that Guangzhou and Hong Kong Cantonese and many Hakka sub-dialects use a verbal suffix JIN 緊 (GAN in Cantonese, GIN in Hakka) to denote the progressive aspect. Yang (2005) claims that durative markers in southern Chinese dialects are derived from adjectives meaning ‘tight’ or ‘ stable’, and suggested that both Cantonese GAN and Hakka GIN should also have followed the same developmental paths. By closely examining the data from concurrent and early corpora, this paper claims that Cantonese GAN and Hakka GIN make a categorical contrast in terms of aspects: While Hakka GIN can denote the durative aspect, Cantonese GAN cannot; GAN, in contrast, can denote an aspect leading up to the telic point of an action, an aspectual property that GIN does not possess. Their categorical differences clearly suggest that they should have derived from different etymons. This paper claims that while Hakka GIN may have developed from a ‘tight’-type adjective as suggested by Yang, Guangzhou and Hong Kong Cantonese GAN is most likely to have evolved from a verb meaning to approach. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Chinese Linguistics.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)115-136
Journal中國語言學報
Volume25
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Citation

片岡新(2015):從粵客語語料看進行體標記的特性與語法化,《中國語言學報》,25,頁115-136。

Keywords

  • 進行體
  • 體貌特性
  • 語法化過程
  • 客家話
  • Progressive
  • Durative
  • Grammaticalization process
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Alt. title: Aspectual properties and grammaticalization of progressive markers as reflected in Cantonese and Hakka corpora