從知識分子到大眾:大眾語論爭與「現代漢語」的發展方向

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

上世紀30年代,中國的左翼作家,曾進行大規模的文藝大眾化的討論,而文藝大眾化運動中的語言問題─大眾語的建設,更是討論的焦點之一。大眾語討論參與者眾,知名者如魯迅、瞿秋白、茅盾、陳望道、葉聖陶、夏丏尊、陳子展等,並包括很多左翼雜誌上的零散討論。當中1932年瞿秋白與茅盾的大眾語論爭,最能代表左翼文人在大眾語運動中各種的觀點。其後,1934年左翼文人根據二人之論爭,繼續推動大眾語,在左派刊物上輪流發表文章,製造大眾語的輿論,影響後來普通話和現代漢語書面形式的發展。順此,本文先回溯瞿秋白與茅盾的觀點,勾勒大眾語論爭的主要脈絡,並揭示中國大陸的語文,由知識分子為主導的五四白話文走向以大眾為本位的「普通話」緣由,藉此說明現今由「普通話」而來的書面形式─「現代漢語」,如何受大眾語論爭之影響,形成今日所見之面貌與風格。
In 1930s, many famous left-wing Chinese writers and scholars took part in the Chinese Language Popularization Movement 大眾語運動. One of the most important missions of this Movement is to make Chinese Language easier for the less educated people (mainly farmer and blue-collar) in China. In 1932, there was a thorough discussion of this issue between Qu Qiubai 瞿秋白 and Mao Dun 茅盾, and the main ideas of Popular Chinese 大眾語 were fully shown in this discussion. In 1934, after the discussion of Qu and Mao, the left-wing writers and scholars launched another discussion of Popular Chinese by the method of publishing a series of articles of different authors. In fact, those authors of these articles were peers and they have compromised the main ideas of the discussion. For the above background, we are going to penetrate deeply the main theories of Chinese Language Popularization Movement and the viewpoints of left-wing writes and scholars. Moreover, this article will investigate the difference between the original modern Chinese Language and the popularized one. Lastly, this paper will also discuss the relationship of Popular Chinese and Putonghua, as well as the written form of Chinese today. Copyright © 2014 國立彰化師範大學國文學系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)187-218
Journal彰化師大國文學誌
Volume29
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014

Citation

譚志明(2014):從知識分子到大眾:大眾語論爭與「現代漢語」的發展方向,《彰化師大國文學誌》,29,頁187-218。

Keywords

  • 文藝大眾化
  • 大眾語運動
  • 瞿秋白
  • 茅盾
  • 左翼文藝
  • Chinese language reform
  • Popularization
  • Qu Qiubai
  • Mao Dun
  • Left-wing literature
  • Alt. title: From intellectual to public: A study on the popularization of Chinese language in 1930s