從平行梵本看支譯《維摩詰經•菩薩品》所謂「『是』後置特殊判斷句」的真實句法語義結構

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

浩如煙海的古代漢譯佛經是研究古代中印文化交流史的基礎性資料。作為翻譯作品,譯經中包含有大量非漢語的異質成分,往往會導致誤讀。要想避免誤讀,應當盡可能利用平行的「原典」進行對勘。《維摩經》是大乘佛教重要經典。支謙譯《維摩詰經•菩薩品》中有一段話,按照傳統的句讀,其中包含了一些所謂的「『是』後置特殊判斷句」。最近十多年,學術界對這種句子的性質和來源有不少討論。本文通過與平行梵文的對讀,發現這些句子都是譯者按照「原典」的句子詞對詞地仿造出來的,其真實句法語義結構要通過源頭語才能看清楚。在此基礎上,有兩點收獲值得報告。一是大多數句子的斷句可能有誤,它們並不是所謂的「『是』後置特殊判斷句」;二是唯一可以視為這種判斷句的,其與平行梵文的關係可能表明,漢譯佛經中的這種判斷句,雖然不一定是全部,至少有一部分,可能是仿譯的產物。
Ancient Chinese translations of Indian Buddhist scriptures provide the basic data for studying the history of Sino-Indian cultural exchange. As translated works, these texts contain many non-Chinese elements, which often led to misunderstandings. To eliminate these misunderstandings, comparative analysis should be undertaken using existing Sanskrit parallel texts. The Vimalakīrtinirdeśa is an important sutra in Mahayana Buddhism. There is a paragraph in Zhi Qian’s Chinese translation which, according to the traditional reading, contains “special panduan 判斷 sentences with postpositive shi 是”, a kind of ancient Chinese yes-no sentence that has a final shi. Scholars have been discussing the origins and features of this kind of sentence during the past fifteen years. Through a comparative analysis with its parallel Sanskrit original, however, we find that these sentences are the results of loan translation, the basic method of translation used by the foreign translators. Their true syntactic and semantic structures are revealed only through a comparative analysis with the source language. This paper has two findings. First, the traditional reading of some of these sentences is probably not correct. Second, in some cases, this kind of sentence in Buddhist texts may be the result of loan translation. Copyright © 2019 佛光大學佛教研究中心.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)39-76
Journal佛光學報
Volume5
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

Citation

朱慶之(2019):從平行梵本看支譯《維摩詰經•菩薩品》所謂「『是』後置特殊判斷句」的真實句法語義結構,《佛光學報》,5(2),頁39-76。

Keywords

  • 《維摩詰經》
  • 平行梵本
  • 梵漢對勘
  • 指示代詞「是」
  • 判斷詞 「是」
  • 仿譯
  • 「『是』後置特殊判斷句」
  • Vimalakīrtinirdeśa
  • Sanskrit parallel of Buddhist Chinese translation
  • Sanskrit-Chinese comparative collation
  • Demonstrative pronoun shi
  • Copula shi
  • Loan translation
  • Special panduan sentence with postpositive shi
  • Alt. title: The true syntactic and semantic structure of the “special panduan sentences with postpositive Shi” in Zhi Qian’s Chinese translation of the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa in light of its Sanskrit parallel